RAGE expression in 1-hit VILI. Expression of the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in wild-type mice ventilated for 5 h with low tidal volumes (LVT ~ 7.5 ml/kg) or high tidal volumes (HVT ~ 15 ml/kg). Non-ventilated mice (C) served as control. RAGE gene expression was measured in lung homogenates and normalized to the house-keeping gene hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) (n = 5 for controls, n = 7 ventilated mice/group) (A). Total scores for RAGE expression by immunohistochemical staining of lung tissue (n = 6 for controls, n = 9 ventilated mice/group) (B to E). Representative view of a lung from non-ventilated control mouse (B), absence of RAGE positivity in the lung of a RAGE KO mouse (C), the lung of a LVT-ventilated mouse (D), and increased RAGE expression in the lung of a HVT-ventilated mouse (E). Data represent mean (SEM), *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001 vs LVT and C, staining magnification ×200.