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Table 2 Results from short-term experiments

From: Improving animal welfare using continuous nalbuphine infusion in a long-term rat model of sepsis

  Placebo   Nalbuphine    Placebo   Nalbuphine    
   1 mg/kg/h infusion   Placebo vs Nalbuphine 1 mg/kg/h    5 mg/kg/h infusion   Placebo vs Nalbuphine 5 mg/kg/h Nalbuphine 1 mg/kg/h vs 5 mg/kg/h
(n = 6)   (n = 6)    (n = 6)   (n = 6)    
  mean ±SD mean ±SD p value mean ±SD mean ±SD p value p value
Respiratory parameters
 Respiration rate [1/min] 55 7.7 45 4.1 0.021 51 9.1 41 4.7 0.035 0.10
 pO2 [kPa] 8.85 1.39 7.86 2.41 0.41 9.42 2.17 6.81 0.89 0.022 0.19
 SaO2 [%] 91 4.7 84 8.1 0.09 90 8.2 78 6.6 0.017 0.024
 pCO2 [kPa] 6.13 0.68 7.72 1.28 0.023 6.60 1.11 8.49 0.95 0.010 0.07
 HCO3 [mmol/l] 27.0 3.0 29.7 3.6 0.19 27.2 1.9 28.5 3.5 0.42 0.30
 pH 7.38 0.04 7.32 0.03 0.018 7.35 0.06 7.26 0.03 0.007 0.004
 Base excess [mmol/l] 1.9 3.4 3.6 3.3 0.40 1.6 1.6 1.5 3.7 0.94 0.08
Hemodynamic parameters
 Heart rate (1/min) 409 23.5 336 30.2 <0.001 408 30.4 332 40.3 0.004 0.58
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 96 14.7 78 10.3 0.037 89 13.1 70 6.4 0.010 0.09
 Lactate [mmol/l] 1.0 0.3 0.9 0.2 0.22 1.1 0.3 0.9 0.1 0.20 0.71
 Haematocit [%] 36 5.9 37 3.6 0.82 34 3.1 33 3.5 0.45 0.031
  1. Legend: Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD). All data were obtained while animals were under isoflurane anesthesia. Blood sampling was performed twice in each animal (Fig. 1). Nalbuphine 1 vs 5 mg/kg/h was compared using a paired t test. Nalbuphine vs placebo was compared using an unpaired t-test, as these two groups were independent. italic values indicate significance p < 0.05