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Table 2 Incidence of VAP (percentage of total patients and number of VAP episodes/1000 ventilator days)

From: Manipulation of the microbiome in critical illness—probiotics as a preventive measure against ventilator-associated pneumonia

 Incidence VAPIncidence VAP 
Author, yearIntervention group (percentage of patients [n = patients])Control group (percentage of patients [n = patients])Relative risk (95% CI)Intervention group (VAP episodes/1000 ventilator days)Control group (VAP episodes/1000 ventilator days)Relative risk
Morrow et al., 2010 [29]19.1% (n = 68)40.0% (n = 70)0.5 (0.3 to 0.8)   
Rongrungruang et al., 2015 [32]24.0% (n = 75)29.3% (n = 75)0.8 (0.3 to 0.6)22.630.20.8
Klarin et al., 2008 [28]4.3% (n = 23)14.3% (n = 21)0.3 (0.0 to 2.7)   
Knight et al., 2009 [33]9.0% (n = 130)13.0% (n = 129)0.7 (0.4 to 1.4)13.014.60.9
Forestier et al., 2008 [27]23.5% (n = 102)22.6% (n = 106)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)   
Barraud et al., 2010 [26]26.4% (n = 87)18.7% (n = 80)1.4 (0.8 to 2.5)23.014.61.6
Zeng et al., 2016 [31]36.4% (n = 118)50.4% (n = 117)0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)