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Fig. 1 | Intensive Care Medicine Experimental

Fig. 1

From: Ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction: translational mechanisms lead to therapeutical alternatives in the critically ill

Fig. 1

Summary of the current understanding of the molecular pathways contributing to ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD) in critically ill patients. As shown, different conditions can lead to diaphragm atrophy via an imbalance between proteolysis and protein synthesis [11, 14], whereas remaining muscle proteins may be impaired by enhanced oxidation and dephosphorylation [15,16,17]. Inflammation and oxidative stress are proposed to be the major drivers of these impairments [17]. In addition, certain drugs can impair neural drive and excitation-contraction coupling

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