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Table 2 Criteria used to define cardiogenic shock adapted to animal practice

From: Heart failure supported by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): a systematic review of pre-clinical models

  Clinical criteria Hemodynamic criteria Cardiogenic shock adequately defined? Cardiogenic shock achieved?
Arterial hypotensiona Pulmonary congestionb End-organ hypoperfusionc Low cardiac outputd Elevated filling pressuree
Dogs
 Sakamoto et al. LAP > 10 mmHg No N/A
 Kawashima et al. No N/A
 Yu et al. No predefined criteria No N/A
Ox
 Segesser et al. “pressure drop” No N/A
Pigs
 Møller-Helgestad et al. SvO2 ≤ 35% + Yes Yes
 Ostadal et al. + Yes Yes
 Simonsen et al. + Yes Yes
 Janak et al. + + Yes No
 Vanhuyse et al. + + + Yes Yes
 Esposito et al. No predefined criteria No N/A
 Hala et al. Cardiogenic shock not studied N/A  
 Itoh et al. No predefined criteria No N/A
 Ostadal et al. + + Yes Yes
 Brehm et al. + + Yes No
 Kajimoto et al. No predefined criteria No N/A
 Zhu et al. + Yes No
 Bartoli et al. Reduction of SvO2 by 10% + Elevation of LAP ≥ 5 mmHg Yes Yes
Sheep
 Sauren et al. No N/A
 Naito et al. MAP reduction > 20 mmHg + LAP increase > 10 mmHg Yes Yes
  1. Data were divided into clinical and hemodynamic variables with “+” indicating the criterion was met and “−” indicating the criterion was not met. When a criterion was correctly defined but met a different threshold, we considered the criterion to be met and wrote the precise threshold used in the study. We considered that a study had defined cardiogenic shock adequately if (i) it was consistent with the guidelines in force at the time of the experiment; (ii) it used a combination of two criteria present in any guidelines including at least one clinical criterion; or (iii) it used one criterion in the context of acute heart failure induction. We considered that a study had achieved cardiogenic shock if those criteria were met during the experiment. Otherwise, it was considered as “acute heart failure without cardiogenic shock”.
  2. LAP left atrial pressure; MAP mean arterial pressure; SvO2 venous saturation of oxygen
  3. aSystolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or inotrope, mean arterial pressure (MAP) < 65 mmHg, or > 20% drop in MAP. Based on criteria from SHOCK and IABP-SHOCK II Trial and NICE Clinical Guidelines
  4. bCriteria from IABP-SHOCK II trial
  5. cAltered mental status, cold/clammy skin and extremities, urine output < 0.5 mL/kg/h, pH < 7.35, elevated serum creatinine, lactate > 2.0 mmol/L. SvO2 threshold based on criteria from SHOCK and IABP-SHOCK II Trial, NICE, and ESC Clinical Guidelines
  6. dCardiac index (CI) ≤ 2.2 L/min/m2 or cardiac output (CO) < 3.5 L/min or > 20% drop in CO. Based on criteria from SHOCK and IABP-SHOCK II Trials and ESC Clinical Guidelines
  7. ePulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥ 15 mmHg or increased left atrial pressure (LAP). Based on criteria from SHOCK Trial and ESC Clinical Guidelines