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Table 1 Suggestions to improve translational study design in critical care

From: The importance of discovery science in the development of therapies for the critically ill

Improving preclinical modelsUse of multiple hits
Incorporate frailty
Extended duration of models
Multi-center approach
Use of randomization
Bench to bedside communication of phenotype discovery
Improving clinical trialsMechanistic substudies
Bedside to bench communication of phenotype discovery
Testing of pharmacologic strategies in biologically homogenous patient subsets with activation of relevant pathways