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Table 4 Influence of RRT on EV properties in CKD.

From: Extracellular vesicles as regulators of kidney function and disease

Condition EV populations and cargoa Functionb
CVVH Ultrafiltrate: no EVs [109]
pre- vs. post-filter: total EVs →, CD31+/CD41- EVs ↑ (sepsis-AKI) [109]
 
HD Ultrafiltrate/dialysate: only traces of miRNA (hence no EVs) [110]
pre- vs. post-HD: total plasma miRNA → [110]
low flux: EC-EVs and Mo-EVs ↑ after HD compared to high flux [116]
miR-223+ EVs: VSMC calcification ↑, angiogenesis ↓, EC apoptosis ↑ [81]
HDF EC-EVs ↓ compared to HD [81, 90, 117]
miR-223 ↓ compared to HD [81]
VSMC calcification ↓, angiogenesis ↑, EC apoptosis ↓ compared to HD [81]
PD PD effluent: mesothelial EVs detected [119, 120]  
  1. aIf not declared differently, EVs were purified from patients’ blood
  2. bNote that EV functions are commonly evaluated in bulk preparations and not in the specifically altered subpopulations