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Table 3 Gas exchange and haemodynamics

From: Continuous external negative pressure improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in Experimental Lung Injury in Pigs – A pilot proof-of-concept trial

Parameter PEEP (cmH2O) Position CENP (cmH2O) ANOVA (P-values)
0 − 10 − 20 − 30 − 40 Position CENP PEEP Mixed
Mean arterial pressure, MAP (mmHg)         0.080 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
0 Abdomen 93 ± 22 89.6 ± 21 89.1 ± 20 88.4 ± 13 91.2 ± 9 0.271 0.899   0.996
Thorax 93.9 ± 24 92.6 ± 20 91 ± 18 91.9 ± 11 94.5 ± 11     
7 Abdomen 96.5 ± 10 94.5 ± 13 89.5 ± 11 87.2 ± 8.7 83.8 ± 10 0.349 0.006   0.137
Thorax 91.8 ± 11 92 ± 9.6 92 ± 7.9 93.1 ± 7.9 90.8 ± 5.4     
15 Abdomen 97.1 ± 13 88.6 ± 15 77.2 ± 9.3 70.4 ± 9.8 62.8 ± 13 0.107 < 0.001 0, 7 0.095
Thorax 90.1 ± 11 88.5 ± 11 85.8 ± 12 78.2 ± 11 71.4 ± 14     
     0 0,10 0,10,20     
Heart rate, HR (bpm)         0.135 0.959 0.005 0.114
0 Abdomen 90 ± 28 88.6 ± 27 88.1 ± 27 86.9 ± 26 85.5 ± 23 0.141 0.716   0.734
Thorax 90.9 ± 28 88.2 ± 27 85 ± 27 83.4 ± 27 80.6 ± 24     
7 Abdomen 84 ± 22 82.6 ± 22 83.5 ± 21 83.9 ± 20 86.5 ± 20 0.022 0.841 0 0.989
Thorax 81 ± 22 79.5 ± 21 80.5 ± 22 80.6 ± 22 81.2 ± 22     
15 Abdomen 75.1 ± 32 89.6 ± 21 92.4 ± 23 91.6 ± 23 91.4 ± 25 0.830 0.092   0.530
Thorax 85.9 ± 21 86.1 ± 19 87.4 ± 20 88 ± 21 89.2 ± 21     
         < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.278
Mean pulmonary airway pressure, MPAP (mmHg) 0 Abdomen 28.8 ± 6.3 26.5 ± 5.7 24 ± 6 22 ± 6.2 20.4 ± 5 < 0.001 < 0.001   0.168
Thorax 29 ± 5.1 28.8 ± 5.1 27.2 ± 5.6 25.8 ± 5.5 28.1 ± 15     
     * 0* 0     
7 Abdomen 25.1 ± 3.2 23.1 ± 4.2 19.4 ± 3.6 18.5 ± 3.6 18 ± 3.5 < 0.001 < 0.001 0 0.042
Thorax 25.8 ± 4.3 24.5 ± 4.7 23 ± 4.6 21.8 ± 4.8 21.1 ± 4.2     
     0, 10* 0, 10* 0, 10*     
15 Abdomen 21.5 ± 2.9 20.4 ± 2.8 19.2 ± 3.1 17.4 ± 5.5 19.2 ± 3.7 < 0.001 < 0.001 0, 7 0.129
Thorax 22.4 ± 4.8 21.5 ± 4.5 20.8 ± 3.9 21.2 ± 4.8 21.8 ± 4.7     
      0 0* *     
Infusion rate of noradrenaline (mg/h)         0.026 0.970 0.038 0.973
0 Abdomen 0.28 ± 0.6 0.28 ± 0.6 0.18 ± 0.3 0.18 ± 0.3 0.18 ± 0.3 0.008 0.328   0.642
Thorax 0.13 ± 0.2 0.13 ± 0.2 0.13 ± 0.2 0.14 ± 0.2 0.14 ± 0.2     
7 Abdomen 0.07 ± 0.1 0.07 ± 0.1 0.07 ± 0.1 0.08 ± 0.1 0.08 ± 0.1 0.013 1.000   0.978
Thorax 0.13 ± 0.2 0.13 ± 0.2 0.14 ± 0.2 0.14 ± 0.2 0.19 ± 0.4     
15 Abdomen 0.07 ± 0.1 0.08 ± 0.1 0.10 ± 0.1 0.12 ± 0.2 0.12 ± 0.2 0.007 0.999   0.988
Thorax 0.25 ± 0.5 0.31 ± 0.6 0.36 ± 0.8 0.41 ± 0.9 0.46 ± 1     
pH (arb. un.)         < 0.001 0.116 < 0.001 0.234
0 Abdomen 7.39 ± 0.06 n/a 7.40 ± 0.07 n/a 7.41 ± 0.06 0.054 0.040   0.878
Thorax 7.38 ± 0.07 n/a 7.38 ± 0.08 n/a 7.40 ± 0.07     
7 Abdomen 7.42 ± 0.06 n/a 7.44 ± 0.07 n/a 7.43 ± 0.07 0.004 0.211 0 0.413
Thorax 7.42 ± 0.07 n/a 7.42 ± 0.08 n/a 7.41 ± 0.06     
       *     
15 Abdomen 7.44 ± 0.06 n/a 7.44 ± 0.069 n/a 7.44 ± 0.063 0.022 0.996 0, 7 0.738
Thorax 7.42 ± 0.08 n/a 7.43 ± 0.071 n/a 7.42 ± 0.081     
Arterial partial pressure of CO2, PaCO2 (mmHg)         0.054 0.152 < 0.001 0.107
0 Abdomen 42.4 ± 4.2 n/a 41.3 ± 7.3 n/a 40.1 ± 8.7 0.044 0.666   0.456
Thorax 47.8 ± 16.0 n/a 43.7 ± 9.0 n/a 41.2 ± 10     
7 Abdomen 38.1 ± 7.4 n/a 38.2 ± 7.1 n/a 36.8 ± 8.8 0.685 0.462 0 0.640
Thorax 37.8 ± 8.5 n/a 38.3 ± 9.4 n/a 38.1 ± 9.2     
15 Abdomen 35.7 ± 6.9 n/a 35.3 ± 7.7 n/a 36.8 ± 9.1 0.525 0.580 0, 7 0.804
Thorax 37.0 ± 9.7 n/a 35.9 ± 9.1 n/a 36.6 ± 10     
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. Linear-mixed effects, repeated-measures ANOVA with factors position (abdomen or thorax), PEEP and CENP were performed for each parameter (1st line) over all values and for each PEEP-step (1st line of each PEEP step). Post hoc comparison was done according to Sidak after significant effects for CENP (0, 10, 20 and 30 indicate if the value at respective CENP was different compared to CENP 0, 10, 20 and 30 cmH2O, respectively) or PEEP (0 or 7 in PEEP effects column indicate the significant difference between the respective PEEP row with PEEP level indicated in the number, e.g. 0 or 7) or position (* position effects at the respective CENP). Significance was accepted for P< 0.05
  2. CENP continuous external negative pressure, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, n/a not available