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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of brain injured patients

From: Autonomic nervous system activity and the risk of nosocomial infection in critically ill patients with brain injury

  All patients (n = 64) Infected (n = 23) Non-infected (n = 41)
Main characteristics
 Age (years, n, %) 51 (19.3) 52 (18.2) 50 (20.1)
 Male gender (n, %) 47 (73%) 15 (65%) 32 (78%)
 Reason for ICU admission (n, %)
  TBI 50 (78%) 18 (78%) 32 (78%)
  iCVA 9 (14%) 2 (9%) 7 (17%)
  hCVA 5 (8%) 3 (13%) 2 (5%)
Admission injury/illness severity scores
 ISS (mean, SD) 24 (11) 26 (12) 23 (11)
  AIS thorax ≥ 3 (n, %) 13 (26%) 5 (28%) 8 (25%)
  AIS abdomen/pelvis ≥ 3 (n, %) 2 (4%) 1 (6%) 1 (3%)
  AIS extremity ≥ 3 (n, %) 4 (8%) 0 (0%) 4 (13%)
  AIS external ≥ 3 (n, %) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 GCS (median, IQR) 7 (3–9) 7 (3–8) 6 (3–9)
 SAPS 2 (mean, SD) 43.7 (11.3) 45.5 (9.3) 42.7 (12.3)
 APACHE II (median, IQR) 19 (16–23) 19 (17–21) 19 (15–23)
Comorbidity
 Prehospital beta-blocker use (n, %) 10 (16%) 4 (17%) 6 (15%)
 Hypertension (n, %) 14 (22%) 5 (22%) 9 (22%)
 CVA (n, %) 6 (9%) 3 (13%) 3 (7%)
 Cardiac pathology (n, %) 11 (17%) 3 (13%) 8 (20%)
 Diabetes mellitus (n, %) 6 (9%) 2 (9%) 4 (10%)
 COPD (n, %) 4 (6%) 1 (4%) 3 (7%)
 Alcohol abuse (n, %) 5 (8%) 2 (9%) 3 (7%)
Admission clinical parameters
 Heart rate (bpm, mean, SD) 80 (17) 83 (15) 79 (18)
 SBP (mmHg, mean, SD) 132 (29) 132 (37) 133 (24)
 Temperature (°C, mean, SD) 35.6 (1.2) 35.5 (1.3) 35.7 (1.2)
Admission lab parameters
 Hb (mmol/l, median, IQR) 7.9 (6.7–8.5) 7.2 (6.3–8.2)* 8.0 (7.5–8.8)
 WCC (× 10^9/l, mean SD) 11.8 (4.7) 11.6 (5.8) 11.9 (4.0)
 CRP (mg/l, median, IQR) 3.8 (0.7–6.7) 3.8 (2–7.4) 4.9 (0.6–7.8)
  1. Data are presented as mean standard deviation, median and interquartile range or absolute number and percentage
  2. ICU intensive care unit, TBI traumatic brain injury, iCVA ischemic cerebrovascular accident, hCVA hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident, ISS Injury Severity Score, AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score, SAPS 2 Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation 2 score, MI myocardial infarction, AF atrial fibrillation, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, Hb hemoglobin, WCC white cell count, CRP C-reactive protein
  3. *Significantly different from non-infected group
  4. Cardiac pathology includes MI and AF, as well as cardiac valve pathology and other (paroxysmal) rhythm disorders