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Table 2 Treatment on ICU and outcome

From: Autonomic nervous system activity and the risk of nosocomial infection in critically ill patients with brain injury

  All patients (n = 64) Infected (n = 23) Non-infected (n = 41) p-value
Invasive procedures
 Surgery (n, %) 38 (59) 17 (74) 21 (51) 0.076
 Amount of surgical procedures (n, median, IQR) 1 (0–1) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–1) 0.006
  Tracheostomy (n, %) 10 (16) 8 (35) 2 (5) 0.002
  Intracranial device (n, %) 20 (31) 12 (52) 8 (20) 0.007
   Duration of Intracranial device (days, median, IQR) 0 (0–2) 1 (0–6) 0 (0–0) 0.005
  Central venous catheter (n, %) 26 (41) 12 (52) 14 (34) 0.159
   Duration of central venous catheter (days, median, IQR) 0 (0–5) 2 (0–8) 0 (0–3) 0.103
Treatment during ICU/CMC stay
 Antibiotics (n, %) 48 (75) 19 (83) 29 (71) 0.292
  SDD (n, %) 44 (69) 18 (78) 26 (63) 0.219
  Other than SDD (n, %) 37 (58) 16 (70) 21 (51) 0.154
  Duration of antibiotics (days, median, IQR) 5 (1–7) 5 (2–9) 4 (0–7) 0.126
 Vasopressor (n, %) 35 (55) 17 (74) 18 (44) 0.021
  Duration of vasopressor use (days, median, IQR) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–5) 0 (0–2) 0.016
 Beta-blocker (n, %) 12 (19) 7 (30) 5 (12) 0.073
  Duration of beta-blocker use (days, median, IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–2) 0 (0–0) 0.066
 Mechanically ventilated (n, %) 61 (95) 23 (100) 38 (93) 0.184
  Duration of ventilation (days, median, IQR) 3 (2–7) 6 (2–11) 2 (2–5) 0.042
Outcome
 Onset of (first) infection (days, median, IQR) NA 6 (3–12) NA NA
 ICU stay (days, median, IQR) 4.5 (3–9) 8 (3–14) 4 (2–6.5) 0.011
 Total length of hospital stay (days, median, IQR) 12 (6–26) 24 (10–44) 9 (5–17) 0.001
 Discharge location (n, %)
  Home 20 (31) 4 (17) 16 (39) 0.073
  Another hospital 17 (27) 8 (35) 10 (24) 0.375
  Nursing home 14 (22) 7 (30) 7 (17) 0.215
 28-day mortality (n, %)
  All causes 12 (19) 4 (17) 8 (19) 0.835
  Brain injury 10 (8) 3 (13) 7 (16) 0.670
  MOF 2 (3) 1 (4) 1 (2) 0.674
  1. Data are presented as median and interquartile range or absolute number and percentage
  2. SDD selective decontamination of the digestive tract, ICU intensive care unit