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Table 4 Challenges for testing mesenchymal stromal cells for ARDS

From: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell-based therapies for severe viral pneumonia: therapeutic potential and challenges

Challenge Solutions/options
Source and production methods Bone marrow, umbilical cord, iPSC-derived
Optimal dose (intravenous) 2, 4, or 10 × 106/kg (ideal body weight)
Number of doses and timing One dose versus two doses
Dose spacing 36–72 h apart?
Inclusion criteria High-flow nasal oxygen versus invasive mechanical ventilation
Identifying treatment responsive phenotypes Potential variables—age, viral, bacterial pneumonia, shock or not shock, biological variables (IL-8, Protein C, bicarbonate)