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Table 1 Characteristics of studies

From: Structural equation modelling the relationship between anti-fungal prophylaxis and Pseudomonas bacteremia in ICU patients

  Observational Non-decontamination Topical anti-septica Antibiotic basedb Single anti-fungalc
Study characteristics
Listing Additional file 1: Table S1 Additional file 1: Table S2 Additional file 1: Table S3 Additional file 1: Table S4 Additional file 1: Table S5
Number of studiesd 142 44 18 61 13
MV for > 48 h for < 90%e 41 0 9 16 6
PPAP for control groups 0 0 0 10 0
Trauma ICUsf 25 8 3 13 1
CRF as selection criteriag 11 0 0 11 6
Paediatric ICU    1 1  
North American ICU 36 10 8 6 3
Study publication year (range) 1987–2019 1987–2017 2000–2018 1984–2021 1994–2014
Group characteristics      
Number of groupsd 166 88 37 131 32
Numbers of patients per study group; median (IQR)h 280
118–596
75
61–143
130
72–347
47
31–72
69
49–78
Mean length of stay < 7 days; (number of groups) 27 14 12 14 2
Candidemia risk factors; (number of groups) 11 0 0 21 14
Indicative intervention effect size (VAP / RT candida)i j
VAP Pseudomonas prevention effect (Additional file 1: Fig. S3)
(odds ratio; 95% CI; n)
NA 0.75;
0.61–0.91
(39)
0.61;
0.38–0.97
(11)
0.33;
0.26–0.42
(39)
NR
RT candida prevention effect (Additional file 1: Fig. S5)
(odds ratio; 95% CI; n)
NA 0.62;
0.42–0.9
(19)
0.37;
0.11–1.29
(8)
0.54;
0.27–1.08
(15)
NR
Indicative intervention effect sizei,k (Bacteremia/Candidemia)
Pseudomonas bacteremia prevention effect (Additional file 1: Fig. S4)
(odds ratio; 95% CI; n)
NA 7.46;
0.47–120
(1)
1.0
0.67–1.5
(7)
0.82;
0.52–1.29
(19)
NR
Candidemia prevention effect (Additional file 1: Fig. S6)
(odds ratio; 95% CI; n)
NA 1.01;
0.06–16.1
(1)
0.75
0.55–1.03
(7)
0.48;
0.27–0.85
(17)
0.43;
0.23–0.8
(16)l
  1. aAmong anti-septic studies, topical chlorhexidine was used in 15 of 20 intervention groups
  2. bAmong TAP intervention groups, the most common antibiotic combination used were polymyxin in combination with an aminoglycoside in 62 of 84 groups. Also, a topical anti-fungal was used in all but eight interventions groups, with amphotericin being the most common anti-fungal (50 intervention groups)
  3. cFluconazole was the most common single agent antifungal, used in seven intervention groups
  4. dNote, several studies had more than one control and or intervention group. Hence the number of groups does not equal the number of studies
  5. eStudies for which less than 90% of patients were reported to receive > 48 h of MV
  6. fTrauma ICU arbitrarily defined as an ICU with more than 50% of admissions for trauma
  7. gUse of Candidemia risk factors (CRF) as study inclusion criteria
  8. hData is median and inter-quartile range (IQR)
  9. iNote that studies with zero events in both control and intervention arms do not contribute in the calculation of summary effect size
  10. jEffect size is indicative for each category. Anti-septic interventions include Iseganin in one study; TAP interventions were usually in combinations with an anti-fungal agent; SAF interventions were single include nystatin and TAP in one study and fluconazole in combinations with TAP in another study
  11. kEffect size is indicative as several interventions with combinations of agents have been included. TAP interventions were usually in combinations with an anti-fungal agent (most commonly amphotericin); SAF interventions were either nystatin (six intervention groups) or fluconazole or another agent (nine intervention groups)
  12. lSummary effect size from 7 studies that used nystatin was 1.2 (0.79–1.83) and from 9 studies that used an azole as SAF was 0.21 (0.11–0.4)