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Table 1 Characteristics of healthy subjects and patients

From: High levels of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with favorable outcome in patients with pneumonia and sepsis with multi-organ failure

Characteristic Healthy controls Survivors (90 days) Non-survivors (90 days) p value* (survivors vs non-survivors)
Number of patients 18 14 34  
Gender, male 15 (83%) 11 (79%) 24 (71%)  
Age (years) 53 [25–58] 57 [47–74] 75 [67–86] 0.0014
Type of infection    
 VAP/HAP 11 (79%) 22 (65%) 0.35
 HCAP 3 (21%) 12 (35%)  
Severity of illness at admission     
 APACHE II score 16 [14–21] 23 [18–27] 0.009
 SOFA score 10 [8.8–11] 10 [9–12] 0.41
Secondary infections 9 (64%) 17 (50%) 0.36
New sepsis episode 7 (50%) 16 (47%) 0.85
Charlson comorbidity index 4 [1–5] 6 [5–9] 0.002
Length of hospital stay 36 [24–48] 14 [8–28] 0.003
Length of ICU stay 26 [13–37] 15 [8–28] 0.16
Leukocytes (× 109/L) 13.9 [7.5–16.0] 13.8 [10.6–20.4] 0.32
PMN-MDSCs (% of leukocytes) 2.1 [0.74–3.1] 22 [6–44] 22 [8–37] 0.96
M-MDSCs (% of leukocytes) 0.96 [0.46–1.5] 4.6 [2.6–6.5] 2.9 [1.8–4.1] 0.052
Lactate (mmol/L) 1.4 [0.85–2.2] 2.8 [1.6–2.8] 0.02
CRP (mg/L) 130 [40–174] 144 [78–184] 0.63
IL-6 (pg/mL) 29 [19–52] 31 [17–73] 0.73
Ferritin (ng/mL) 501 [349–675] 748 [437–1478] 0.14
  1. p values < 0.05 are highlighted in bold
  2. Data are medians [IQR] or n (%). Severity scores, leukocyte counts, MDSC levels and lactate levels were measured at study inclusion
  3. VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia, HCAP healthcare-associated pneumonia, PMN-MDSCs polymorphonuclear-MDSCs, M-MDSCs monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells
  4. *p values comparing survivors and non-survivors at 90 days