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Table 2 Characteristics of patients grouped according to the occurrence of secondary infection and M-MDSC level

From: High levels of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with favorable outcome in patients with pneumonia and sepsis with multi-organ failure

Characteristic No secondary infection Developed a secondary infection p value M-MDSCs ≤ 4.3% M-MDSCs > 4.3% p value
Number 22 26   31 17  
Gender, male 14 (64%) 21 (81%) 0.18 22 (71%) 13 (76%) 0.17
Age (year) 74 [63–85] 73 [62–80] 0.46 74 [69–82] 62 [52–77] 0.6
Type of infection
 HAP/VAP 12 (55%) 19 (73%) 0.18 18 (68%) 13 (76%) 0.2
 HCAP 10 (45%) 7 (27%)   13 (42%) 4 (24%)  
Severity of illness at admission
 APACHE II score 20 [17–25] 20 [16–26] 0.99 21 [17–27] 20 [15–23] 0.29
 SOFA score 11 [9–12] 10 [9–12] 0.60 10 [9–12] 11 [10–12] 0.61
Mortality day 90 17 (77%) 17 (65%) 0.37 26 (84%) 8 (47%) 0.007
New sepsis episode   16 (52%) 7 (41%) 0.48
Secondary infection   17 (55%) 9 (53%) 0.90
Length of hospital stay 8 [5–12] 33 [27–43] < 0.0001 16 [8–28] 33 [12–44] 0.04
Length of ICU stay 8 [5–10] 29 [20–36]  < 0.0001 16 [8–26] 27 [10–37] 0.14
Leukocytes (× 109/L) 14.6 [11.6–19.6] 13.5 [10.0–17.9] 0.59 15.5 [12.1–20.4] 10.9 [7.2–16.9] 0.04
PMN-MDSCs (% of leukocytes) 11 [7–26] 32 [14–48] 0.02 26 [9–39] 18 [6–44] 0.86
M-MDSCs (% of leukocytes) 3.04 (1.72–6.48) 3.07 (2.12, 4.60) 0.83  
Lactate (mmol/L) 2.10 [1.70–2.80] 1.70 [1.20–2.30] 0.28 2.18 [1.70–2.80] 1.20 [0.90–2.10] 0.01
CRP (mg/L) 164 [130–194] 75 [27–144] 0.003 146 [81–218] 126 [40–167] 0.23
IL-6 (pg/mL) 43 [22–112] 24 [16–50] 0.07 31 [16–72] 29 [20–49] 0.89
Ferritin (ng/mL) 850 [410–1533] 530 [391–981] 0.40 747 [476–1524] 423 [266–808] 0.03
  1. p values < 0.05 are highlighted in bold
  2. Data are medians [IQR] or n (%). Leukocytes, the MDSC-populations and lactate were assessed at study inclusion. Cut-off values of M-MDSCs is expressed in % of leukocytes. p values < 0.05 are highlighted in bold
  3. VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia, HCAP healthcare-associated pneumonia, PMN-MDSCs polymorphonuclear-MDSCs, M-MDSCs monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells