Chronobiologic analysis of a time series through cosinor analysis. Schematic illustration of basic metrics derived from cosinor analysis: This method is applicable to the individual biological time series anticipated to be rhythmic with a given period. The procedure fits a cosine function (blue) to the data (red) by least squares. Midline estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR) is the mean level of oscillation that is the average value of the rhythmic function (e.g., cosine curve) fitted to the data. Amplitude is the difference between the maximum and the MESOR. Acrophase is the time of occurrence of the maximum value.