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  1. To describe the effect of mechanical ventilation on diaphragm mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cytochrome c oxidase activity and content, and thei...

    Authors: P. Eyenga, D. Roussel, B. Rey, P. Ndille, L. Teulier, F. Eyenga, C. Romestaing, J. Morel, V. Gueguen-Chaignon and S-S. Sheu

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:19

    Content type: Research Articles

    Published on:

  2. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate can aid in detecting infections of the central nervous system and surrounding structures. Neurosurgical patients with temporary lumbar or ventricular CSF drain...

    Authors: C. Stephani, A. H. K. Choi and O. Moerer

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:18

    Content type: Research Articles

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  3. Real-time automated analysis of videos of the microvasculature is an essential step in the development of research protocols and clinical algorithms that incorporate point-of-care microvascular analysis. In re...

    Authors: Christian S. Guay, Mariam Khebir, T. Shiva Shahiri, Ariana Szilagyi, Erin Elizabeth Cole, Gabrielle Simoneau and Mohamed Badawy

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:15

    Content type: Research Articles

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  4. The pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may eventually result in heterogeneous lung collapse and edema-flooded airways, predisposing the lung to progressive tissue damage known as ven...

    Authors: Ioanna Nikitopoulou, Ioanna Ninou, Nikolaos Manitsopoulos, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Vassilis Aidinis and Anastasia Kotanidou

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:12

    Content type: Research Articles

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  5. Cerebral vasospasm (VS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) constitute major complications following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A few studies have examined the relationship between different indices of cer...

    Authors: Vasilios E. Papaioannou, Karol P. Budohoski, Michal M. Placek, Zofia Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski and Marek Czosnyka

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:11

    Content type: Research Articles

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  6. Despite decades of preclinical research, no experimentally derived therapies for sepsis have been successfully adopted into routine clinical practice. Factors that contribute to this crisis of translation incl...

    Authors: Asher A. Mendelson, Casey Lansdell, Alison E. Fox-Robichaud, Patricia Liaw, Jaskirat Arora, Jean-François Cailhier, Gediminas Cepinskas, Emmanuel Charbonney, Claudia dos Santos, Dhruva Dwivedi, Christopher G. Ellis, Dean Fergusson, Kirsten Fiest, Sean E. Gill, Kathryn Hendrick, Victoria T. Hunniford…

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:14

    Content type: Commentary

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  7. Inspired air is heated and humidified in the nose before it reaches lower airways. This mechanism is bypassed during tracheostomy, directly exposing the airways to colder and drier air from the environment, kn...

    Authors: Susyn Joan Kelly, Paul Martinsen and Stanislav Tatkov

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:8

    Content type: Research Articles

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  8. Critically ill COVID-19 patients have significantly increased risk of death. Although several circulating biomarkers are thought to be related to COVID-19 severity, few studies have focused on the characterist...

    Authors: Chaoyang Sun, Yuzhe Sun, Ping Wu, Wencheng Ding, Shiyou Wang, Jiafeng Li, Langchao Liang, Chaochao Chai, Yu Fu, Zhiming Li, Linnan Zhu, Jia Ju, Xin Liao, Xiaoyuan Huang, Ling Feng, Ding Ma…

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:13

    Content type: Research Articles

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  9. To expand upon the priorities of fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy research priorities identified by a group of experts assigned by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of I...

    Authors: Ishaq Lat, Craig M. Coopersmith, Daniel De Backer and Craig M. Coopersmith

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:10

    Content type: Review

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  10. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: A. Kleyman, A. Cesar, G. Stanzani, N. Arulkumaran, W. Khaliq, DT. Andreis, B. Bollen Pinto, M. Waugh and M. Singer

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:7

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:73

  11. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for a bedside tool for lung mechanics assessment and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) monitoring. Mechanical power is a unifying concept including all the comp...

    Authors: Angelo Senzi, Marco Bindi, Iacopo Cappellini, Lucia Zamidei and Guglielmo Consales

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:6

    Content type: Letters to the Editor

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  12. Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) remains a major obstacle after lung transplantation. Ischemia–reperfusion injury is a known contributor to the development of PGD following lung transplantation. We developed a ...

    Authors: Anna Elisabeth Frick, Michaela Orlitová, Arno Vanstapel, Sofie Ordies, Sandra Claes, Dominique Schols, Tobias Heigl, Janne Kaes, Berta Saez-Gimenez, Robin Vos, Geert M. Verleden, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Stijn E. Verleden, Dirk E. Van Raemdonck and Arne P. Neyrinck

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:4

    Content type: Research Articles

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  13. Lung ultrasound can adequately monitor disease severity in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesize lung ultrasound can adequately monitor COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    Authors: Micah L. A. Heldeweg, Jorge E. Lopez Matta, Mark E. Haaksma, Jasper M. Smit, Carlos V. Elzo Kraemer, Harm-Jan de Grooth, Evert de Jonge, Lilian J. Meijboom, Leo M. A. Heunks, David J. van Westerloo and Pieter R. Tuinman

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:1

    Content type: Research Articles

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  14. Bedside measurement of lung volume may provide guidance in the personalised setting of respiratory support, especially in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome at risk of ventilator-induced lun...

    Authors: Minh C. Tran, Douglas C. Crockett, John N. Cronin, João Batista Borges, Göran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Andrew D. Farmery and Federico Formenti

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:3

    Content type: Research Articles

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  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), an invasive mechanical therapy, provides cardio-respiratory support to critically ill patients when maximal conventional support has failed. ECMO is delivered via la...

    Authors: India Pearse, Amanda Corley, Nicole Bartnikowski and John F. Fraser

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:5

    Content type: Research Articles

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  16. Mechanical ventilation can induce or even worsen lung injury, at least in part via overdistension caused by too large volumes or too high pressures. The complement system has been suggested to play a causative...

    Authors: Friso M. de Beer, Luuk Wieske, Gerard van Mierlo, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Lieuwe D. Bos, Nicole P. Juffermans, Marcus J. Schultz, Tom van der Poll, Wim K. Lagrand and Janneke Horn

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):74

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  17. Accumulated airway secretions in the endotracheal tube increase work of breathing and may favor airway colonization eventually leading to pneumonia. The aim of this preplanned substudy of the ‘Preventive Nebul...

    Authors: Sophia van der Hoeven, Lorenzo Ball, Federico Constantino, David M. van Meenen, Paolo Pelosi, Ludo F. Beenen, Marcus J. Schultz and Frederique Paulus

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):71

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  18. The animal experimental counterpart of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung injury (ALI). Most models of ALI involve reproducing the clinical risk factors associated with human ARDS, ...

    Authors: Laura Chimenti, Luis Morales-Quinteros, Ferranda Puig, Marta Camprubi-Rimblas, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Maria Nieves Gómez, Jessica Tijero, Lluis Blanch, Gustavo Matute-Bello and Antonio Artigas

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):62

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  19. Outcome prediction in critically ill patients under invasive ventilation remains extremely challenging. The driving pressure (ΔP) and the mechanical power of ventilation (MP) are associated with patient-center...

    Authors: David M. P. van Meenen, Ary Serpa Neto, Frederique Paulus, Coen Merkies, Laura R. Schouten, Lieuwe D. Bos, Janneke Horn, Nicole P. Juffermans, Olaf L. Cremer, Tom van der Poll and Marcus J. Schultz

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  20. Continuous external negative pressure (CENP) during positive pressure ventilation can recruit dependent lung regions. We hypothesised that CENP applied regionally to the thorax or the abdomen only, increases t...

    Authors: Martin Scharffenberg, Jakob Wittenstein, Moritz Herzog, Sebastian Tauer, Luigi Vivona, Raphael Theilen, Thomas Bluth, Thomas Kiss, Thea Koch, Giuseppe Fiorentino, Marcelo Gama de Abreu and Robert Huhle

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):49

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  21. Patients with liver diseases are at high risk for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The liver is an important organ that regulates a complex network of mediators and modulates orga...

    Authors: Raquel Herrero, Gema Sánchez, Iris Asensio, Eva López, Antonio Ferruelo, Javier Vaquero, Laura Moreno, Alba de Lorenzo, Rafael Bañares and José A. Lorente

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):48

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  22. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a dephosphorylating enzyme, is involved in various physiological processes and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects.

    Authors: Jenny Juschten, Sarah A. Ingelse, Lieuwe D. J. Bos, Armand R. J. Girbes, Nicole P. Juffermans, Tom van der Poll, Marcus J. Schultz and Pieter Roel Tuinman

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  23. Outcome prediction in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) greatly improves when patients are reclassified based on predefined arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen...

    Authors: Fabienne D. Simonis, Laura R. A. Schouten, Olaf L. Cremer, David S. Y. Ong, Gabriele Amoruso, Gilda Cinella, Marcus J. Schultz and Lieuwe D. Bos

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):43

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  24. In hemorrhaging trauma patients, the endothelium is activated, resulting in excessive endothelial synthesis of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), which may enhance micro-thrombi formation, resulting in obstruction o...

    Authors: Mathijs R. Wirtz, Daan P. van den Brink, Joris J. T. H. Roelofs, J. Carel Goslings and Nicole P. Juffermans

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):42

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  25. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung recruitment could be maximised with the use of recruitment manoeuvres (RM) or applying a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) higher than wh...

    Authors: Lorenzo Ball, Ary Serpa Neto, Valeria Trifiletti, Maura Mandelli, Iacopo Firpo, Chiara Robba, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J. Schultz, Nicolò Patroniti, Patricia R. M. Rocco and Paolo Pelosi

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):39

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  26. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are stress hormones that regulate developmental and physiological processes and are among the most potent anti-inflammatory drugs to suppress chronic and acute inflammation. GCs act throu...

    Authors: Martin Wepler, Jonathan M. Preuss, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Peter Radermacher, Jan P. Tuckermann and Sabine Vettorazzi

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):37

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  27. This review addresses the plausibility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) therapy for acute lung injury (ALI) and circulatory shock, by contrasting the promising preclinical results to the present clinical reality. The re...

    Authors: Tamara Merz, Nicole Denoix, Martin Wepler, Holger Gäßler, David A. C. Messerer, Clair Hartmann, Thomas Datzmann, Peter Radermacher and Oscar McCook

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):33

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  28. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), increased pulmonary vascular permeability makes the lung vulnerable to edema. The use of conservative as compared to liberal fluid strategies may increase the num...

    Authors: Renata de S. Mendes, Paolo Pelosi, Marcus J. Schultz, Patricia R. M. Rocco and Pedro L. Silva

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):32

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  29. Immune cell activation leads to the acquisition of new functions, such as proliferation, chemotaxis, and cytokine production. These functional changes require continuous metabolic adaption in order to sustain ...

    Authors: Xiaomin Zhang, Fabian Zink, Felix Hezel, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Martin Wepler, Maurizio Loconte, Christine Kranz, Andreas Hellmann, Boris Mizaikoff, Peter Radermacher and Clair Hartmann

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):28

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  30. Flow-controlled ventilation (FCV) allows expiratory flow control, reducing the collapse of the airways during expiration. The performance of FCV during one-lung ventilation (OLV) under intravascular normo- and...

    Authors: Jakob Wittenstein, Martin Scharffenberg, Xi Ran, Diana Keller, Pia Michler, Sebastian Tauer, Raphael Theilen, Thomas Kiss, Thomas Bluth, Thea Koch, Marcelo Gama de Abreu and Robert Huhle

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  31. Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with a high risk of non-neurological complications, which include respiratory failure, cardiovascular dysfunction, kidney and liver injury, and altered immune and endocrine...

    Authors: Chiara Robba, Denise Battaglini, Cynthia S. Samary, Pedro L. Silva, Lorenzo Ball, Patricia R. M. Rocco and Paolo Pelosi

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):23

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  32. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, lipid bilayer-delimited particles of cellular origin that recently gained increasing attention for their potential use as diagnostic biomarkers, and beyond that for thei...

    Authors: Felix Behrens, Johannes Holle, Wolfgang M. Kuebler and Szandor Simmons

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):22

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  33. Sepsis is a syndrome of shock and dysfunction of multiple vital organs that is caused by an uncontrolled immune response to infection and has a high mortality rate. There are no therapies for sepsis, and it ha...

    Authors: Jack Brady, Shahd Horie and John G. Laffey

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):20

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  34. Post cardiac arrest syndrome is associated with high morbidity and mortality, which is related not only to a poor neurological outcome but also to respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunctions. The control of ga...

    Authors: Chiara Robba, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba, Andras Sikter, Denise Battaglini, Wojciech Dąbrowski, Marcus J. Schultz, Evert de Jonge, Chloe Grim, Patricia RM Rocco and Paolo Pelosi

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):19

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  35. Targeted hypothermia, as used after cardiac arrest, increases electrical and mechanical systolic duration. Differences in duration of electrical and mechanical systole are correlated to ventricular arrhythmias...

    Authors: Kristin Wisløff-Aase, Viesturs Kerans, Kristina Haugaa, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Helge Skulstad and Andreas Espinoza

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:76

    Content type: Research Articles

    Published on:

  36. COVID19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been associated with severe inflammation leading to organ dysfunction and mortality. Our aim was to profile the transcriptome in leukocytes from critically ill...

    Authors: Sean E. Gill, Claudia C. dos Santos, David B. O’Gorman, David E. Carter, Eric K. Patterson, Marat Slessarev, Claudio Martin, Mark Daley, Michael R. Miller, Gediminas Cepinskas and Douglas D. Fraser

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:75

    Content type: Research Articles

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  37. When severe, COVID-19 shares many clinical features with bacterial sepsis. Yet, secondary bacterial infection is uncommon. However, as epithelium is injured and barrier function is lost, bacterial products ent...

    Authors: Phatadon Sirivongrangson, Win Kulvichit, Sunchai Payungporn, Trairak Pisitkun, Ariya Chindamporn, Sadudee Peerapornratana, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Suwalak Chitcharoen, Vorthon Sawaswong, Navaporn Worasilchai, Sarinya Kampunya, Opass Putcharoen, Thammasak Thawitsri, Nophol Leelayuwatanakul, Napplika Kongpolprom, Vorakamol Phoophiboon…

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:72

    Content type: Research Articles

    Published on:

  38. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a widespread accepted platform for preservation and evaluation of donor lungs prior to lung transplantation (LTx). Standard lungs are ventilated using volume-controlled ventila...

    Authors: Sofie Ordies, Michaela Orlitova, Tobias Heigl, Annelore Sacreas, Anke Van Herck, Janne Kaes, Berta Saez, Arno Vanstapel, Laurens Ceulemans, Bart M. Vanaudenaerde, Robin Vos, Johny Verschakelen, Geert M. Verleden, Stijn E. Verleden, Dirk E. Van Raemdonck and Arne P. Neyrinck

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:70

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Nosocomial infection contributes to adverse outcome after brain injury. This study investigates whether autonomic nervous system activity is associated with a decreased host immune response in patients followi...

    Authors: Mathijs R. Wirtz, Jiri Moekotte, Kirsten Balvers, Marjolein M. Admiraal, Jean-Francois Pittet, Joe Colombo, Brant M. Wagener, J. Carel Goslings and Nicole Juffermans

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:69

    Content type: Research

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  40. Intensive care unit workers are at high risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection, especially when performing invasive techniques and certain procedures that generate aerosols (< 5 μm). Therefore, one of the object...

    Authors: Dolores Escudero, José Antonio Boga, Javier Fernández, Lorena Forcelledo, Salvador Balboa, Rodrigo Albillos, Iván Astola, Emilio García-Prieto, Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles, Gabriel Martín, Josu Jiménez and Fernando Vázquez

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:68

    Content type: Research

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  41. Lethal B. anthracis infection produces high proinflammatory peptidoglycan (PGN) burdens in hosts. We investigated whether the lethality and inflammation anthrax PGN can produce are related.

    Authors: Yan Li, Xizhong Cui, Joseph Shiloach, Jeffrey Wang, Dante A. Suffredini, Wanying Xu, Wancang Liu, Yvonne Fitz, Junfeng Sun and Peter Q. Eichacker

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most frequent and severe neurological diseases. In the last few decades, significant advances have been made in TBI pathophysiology and monitoring, however new treatm...

    Authors: Enrique Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores Garcia-Olmo, Empar Mayordomo-Aranda, Maria Granada-Picazo, Monica Gomez-Juarez and Jeronimo Moreno-Cuesta

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:66

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Venous–arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) to arterial–venous oxygen (O2) content difference ratio (Cv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) > 1 is supposed to be both sensitive and specific for anaerobic metabolism. What regional hemodynamic ...

    Authors: Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Adriano José Pereira, Jukka Takala and Stephan Mathias Jakob

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. There are limited therapeutic options directed at the underlying pathological processes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Experimental therapeutic strategies have targeted the protective systems t...

    Authors: Robert Qaqish, Yui Watanabe, Marcos Galasso, Cara Summers, A adil Ali, Mamoru Takahashi, Anajara Gazzalle, Mingyao Liu, Shaf Keshavjee, Marcelo Cypel and Lorenzo Del Sorbo

    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:63

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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