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Table 2 The haemodynamic changes of pleural effusion and subsequent fluid loading (2a), increasing infusion rates of norepinephrine (2b) or control (2c)

From: Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion

  Baseline Pleural effusion       Recovery
2a
 Fluid load (mL/kg) 20 40 60 80 100 120 120
 LVEDA (cm2) 11.8 ± 1.1 10.1 ± 1.0a 11.4 ± 1.2b 11.9 ± 1.4 11.7 ± 1.1 11.9 ± 1.3 11.7 ± 1.5 12.0 ± 1.6c 12.4 ± 1.4
 LVESA (cm2) 7.9 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 0.9a 6.4 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.0 6.6 ± 1.0 6.8 ± 1.3 6.7 ± 0.9 6.6 ± 0.8c 7.3 ± 1.4
 IVCDia (cm) 0.9 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2c 1.0 ± 0.1
 dIVC (%) 7 ± 7 8 ± 9 6 ± 5 6 ± 5 4 ± 6 8 ± 9 7 ± 5 12 ± 12 9 ± 7
 CVP (mmHg) 4 ± 3 8 ± 4a 14 ± 8 14 ± 7 14 ± 7 15 ± 7 16 ± 7 12 ± 4c 8 ± 4d
 Afterload (mmHg) 190 ± 44 141 ± 32a 189 ± 62b 191 ± 65 182 ± 42 182 ± 38 186 ± 36 186 ± 21c 188 ± 32
 LVFAC (%) 33 ± 5 42 ± 9a 43 ± 9 43 ± 7 43 ± 6 43 ± 9 43 ± 5 44 ± 6 40 ± 9d
 MAP (mmHg) 77 ± 12 65 ± 14a 74 ± 16b 78 ± 15 78 ± 13 78 ± 12 77 ± 12 78 ± 12c 76 ± 21
 CO (L/min) 2.3 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.3a 2.3 ± 0.5b 2.7 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.3c 2.6 ± 0.4
 HR (bpm) 64 ± 9 69 ± 25 64 ± 18 66 ± 19 66 ± 16 66 ± 14 64 ± 12 64 ± 13 63 ± 13
 LVEDP (mmHg) 8 ± 4 11 ± 3 17 ± 7 17 ± 8 17 ± 4 17 ± 3 18 ± 3 17 ± 3c 13 ± 2d
 PPV (%) 9 ± 1 12 ± 4 9 ± 3b 8 ± 3 7 ± 2 6 ± 2 6 ± 2 6 ± 2c 7 ± 2
 PaO2 (kPa) 33 ± 2 12 ± 4a 12 ± 4 13 ± 4 13 ± 4 13 ± 5 16 ± 4 18 ± 4c 27 ± 4d
2b
 Norepinephrine (μg/kg/min) 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3
 LVEDA (cm2) 10.8 ± 1.0 9.3 ± 1.2a 10.0 ± 0.7 10.2 ± 1.4 10.4 ± 0.9b 10.5 ± 1.3 10.2 ± 1.2 9.9 ± 0.9c 10.5 ± 1.3
 LVESA (cm2) 6.7 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 0.6a 5.8 ± 0.6 6.4 ± 1.0b 5.9 ± 0.8 5.9 ± 1.0 5.4 ± 1.2 5.1 ± 1.0c 5.4 ± 1.2d
 IVCDia (cm) 1.0 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2d
 dIVC (%) 12 ± 11 9 ± 7 6 ± 7 8 ± 9 7 ± 7 8 ± 5 7 ± 8 6 ± 4 5 ± 7
 CVP (mmHg) 4 ± 4 8 ± 4a 8 ± 5 8 ± 4 8 ± 4 9 ± 5 9 ± 5 7 ± 4 6 ± 4d
 Afterload (mmHg) 169 ± 42 131 ± 22a 140 ± 35 153 ± 33b 169 ± 32 181 ± 46 169 ± 44 162 ± 36c 168 ± 31
 LVFAC (%) 39 ± 7 42 ± 8 42 ± 6 37 ± 9 43 ± 8 43 ± 7 48 ± 8 48 ± 10c 48 ± 8
 MAP (mmHg) 72 ± 10 57 ± 9a 59 ± 7 62 ± 9 69 ± 12b 74 ± 19 81 ± 17 79 ± 14c 77 ± 12
 CO (L/min) 1.9 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 0.9c 4.0 ± 0.7d
 HR (bpm) 60 ± 5 64 ± 11 63 ± 14 68 ± 13 72 ± 19 74 ± 16 82 ± 22 87 ± 17 97 ± 22
 LVEDP (mmHg) 9 ± 3 12 ± 3 11 ± 3 12 ± 3 12 ± 3 13 ± 3 14 ± 5 14 ± 6 11 ± 5d
 PPV (%) 11 ± 4 10 ± 3 10 ± 3 9 ± 3 10 ± 3 10 ± 3 10 ± 4 11 ± 3 11 ± 4
 PaO2 (kPa) 32 ± 4 12 ± 4a 12 ± 4 11 ± 4 11 ± 4 12 ± 5 11 ± 4 11 ± 6 27 ± 6d
2c
 Control
 LVEDA (cm2) 12.2 ± 0.6 10.3 ± 1.3a 10.6 ± 1.3 10.4 ± 1.3 10.7 ± 1.3 10.4 ± 1.4 10.2 ± 1.5 10.4 ± 1.5 12.1 ± 1.0d
 LVESA (cm2) 7.3 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 1.5 6.4 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.1 6.2 ± 1.5 5.8 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 1.2 5.9 ± 0.6 7.4 ± 1.0d
 IVCDia (cm) 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.2
 dIVC (%) 8 ± 7 4 ± 6 7 ± 8 3 ± 5 5 ± 7 5 ± 6 2 ± 4 8 ± 7 14 ± 8d
 CVP (mmHg) 3 ± 1 6 ± 1a 7 ± 2b 6 ± 1 7 ± 1 7 ± 2 7 ± 1 7 ± 1 5 ± 2
 Afterload (mmHg) 180 ± 40 132 ± 58 138 ± 39 136 ± 26 122 ± 33 144 ± 37 120 ± 39 121 ± 23 144 ± 34d
 LVFAC (%) 41 ± 9 44 ± 15 43 ± 6 41 ± 7 43 ± 9 45 ± 3 45 ± 5 43 ± 4 38 ± 7
 MAP (mmHg) 80 ± 12 56 ± 12a 58 ± 8 58 ± 6 58 ± 6 57 ± 5 57 ± 7 57 ± 5 61 ± 7
 CO (L/min) 2.5 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.5 2.1 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.5 2.0 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.6
 HR (bpm) 65 ± 9 58 ± 8 60 ± 9 61 ± 9 62 ± 10 59 ± 10 60 ± 9 58 ± 10 56 ± 8
 LVEDP (mmHg) 7 ± 3 8 ± 4 8 ± 3 8 ± 2 10 ± 2 9 ± 4 8 ± 2 9 ± 3 7 ± 3
 PPV (%) 14 ± 8 11 ± 3 10 ± 2 10 ± 3 10 ± 3 10 ± 1 11 ± 2 11 ± 1 11 ± 3
 PaO2 (kPa) 32 ± 2 11 ± 3a 9 ± 3 14 ± 6 17 ± 7 15 ± 5 18 ± 7 18 ± 5c 31 ± 2d
  1. The haemodynamic variables as mean ± standard deviation at baseline during 75 mL/kg pleural effusion and at recovery after pleurocentesis are depicted
  2. Abbreviations: LVEDA left ventricular end-diastolic area, LVESA left ventricular end-systolic area, IVCDia expiratory inferior vena cava diameter, dIVC inferior vena cava distensibility, CVP central venous pressure, Afterload left ventricular afterload, LVFAC left ventricular fractional area change, MAP mean arterial pressure, CO cardiac output, HR heart rate, LVEDP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, PPV pulse pressure variation, Pa02 arterial partial pressure of oxygen
  3. aCompared with baseline (p < 0.05)
  4. bCompared with baseline (p > 0.05 for no difference)
  5. cDifference over time from PLE (p < 0.05)
  6. dRecovery values compared with maximum fluid load or norepinephrine infusion rate (p < 0.05)