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Table 1 Combined recommendations and considerations from the working groups (WG) 1 and 2

From: Minimum quality threshold in pre-clinical sepsis studies (MQTiPSS): an international expert consensus initiative for improvement of animal modeling in sepsis

Study design (WG-1) 1. Survival follow-up should reasonably reflect the clinical time course of the sepsis model R
2. Therapeutic interventions should be initiated after the septic insult replicating clinical care
3. We recommend that the treatment be randomized and blinded when feasible
4. Provide as much information as possible (e.g., ARRIVE guidelines) on the model and methodology, to enable replication
a. Consider replication of the findings in models that include co-morbidity and/or other biological variables (i.e., age, gender, diabetes, cancer, immuno-suppression, genetic background, and others) C
b. In addition to rodents (mice and rats), consider modeling sepsis also in other (mammal) species
c. Consider need for source control
Humane modeling (WG-2) 5. The development and validation of standardized criteria to monitor the well-being of septic animals is recommended R
6. The development and validation of standardized criteria for euthanasia of septic animals is recommended (exceptions possible)
7. Analgesics recommended for surgical sepsis consistent with ethical considerations
d. Consider analgesics for nonsurgical sepsis C
  1. R recommendation strength, C consideration strength