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Table 1 Alveolar cellular effects of hypercapnia: summary of in vivo and ex vivo experiments on the effects of hypercapnia

From: The role of hypercapnia in acute respiratory failure

StudyExperimental modelApplied CO2Cellular effects
Broccard et al. [4]VILI ex vivo (rabbit)PaCO2 target 70–100 mmHgHCA reduced microvascular permeability, lung edema formation, and BAL protein content
Yang et al. [20]VILI in vivo (rat) and in vitro alveolar epithelial cellsPaCO2 target 80–100 mmHgHCA attenuated microvascular leak, oxidative stress, and inflammation
Doerr et al. [65]VILI/plasma wound resealing. Ex vivo (rat) and in vitro alveolar epithelial cell12%Hypercapnia reduced plasma membrane resealing in vivo and in vitro
O’Toole et al. [8]In vitro three cell respiratory lines10, 15%Hypercapnia reduced rate of wound closure (cell migration) via NF-κB pathway inhibition
O’Croinin et al. [17]E. coli pneumonia (48 h). In vivo (rat)8%Hypercapnia worsened lung injury induced by prolonged untreated E. coli pneumonia
Wang et al. [21]Endotoxin stimulation. In vitro human and mouse macrophages5, 9, 12.5, 20%Hypercapnia inhibited macrophage phagocytosis
  1. HCA hypercapnic acidosis, VILI ventilator-induced lung injury, BAL bronchoalveolar lavage, NF-kB nuclear factor kappa B