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Table 3 Detailed characteristics of heart failure model

From: Heart failure supported by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO): a systematic review of pre-clinical models

Study Heart failure Injury model Procedure description Complications
Dogs
Sakamoto et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation with suture
Kawashima et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation (sequential from distal to proximal every 10 min) Death from VF (3 out of 6)
Yu et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation (7 min)
Ox
Segesser et al. Acute Pacing External stimulation to induce VF
Pigs
Møller-Helgestad et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LMCA injection with alcohol microspheres Death from VF (2 out of 14)
Ostadal et al. Acute Myocardial hypoxia Switch mechanical ventilation to 5 breaths/min, 100 mL VT, and FiO2 21%
Simonsen et al. Acute Carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon monoxide administration Cardiac arrest (6 out of 12) leading to death (n = 5)
Janak et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD and LCx occlusion by balloon inflation (5 min, echo-guided)
Vanhuyse et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation (proximal) with tourniquet (60 min)
Esposito et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LCx occlusion (proximal) by balloon inflation (30 mins) Death from VF (2 out of 10)
Hala et al. Chronic* Pacing Ventricular pacing (200 bpm)
Itoh et al. Acute Pacing Direct 3.5 V alternate current to induce VF
Ostadal et al. Acute Myocardial hypoxia LAD or LCx perfusion with venous blood VF (2 out of 5)
Brehm et al. Acute Drug-induced (Esmolol) Esmolol bolus bolus at 2 mg/kg into the LA
Kajimoto et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation with sutures (10 min) Death (2 out of 19)
Zhu et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation between diagonal branches Death (2 out of 24)
Bartoli et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LAD ligation (sequential) Death from arrhythmias (21 out of 47)
Sheep
Sauren et al. Acute Myocardial infarction LCx (or side branches) ligation “Unstable” (3 out of 7)
Naito et al. Acute Drug-induced (Esmolol) Esmolol bolus at 2 mg/kg into the LA and drip infusion (50 to 500 mg/kg/min)
  1. bpm beats per minute; LAD left anterior descending coronary; LCx left circumflex coronary; LMCA left main coronary artery; VF ventricular fibrillation
  2. *A delay of 4 to 8 weeks was respected in order to obtain clinical signs of heart failure