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Table 3 Changes in EV characteristics upon different forms of kidney disease

From: Extracellular vesicles as regulators of kidney function and disease

Condition EV populations and cargoa Functionb
AKI EC-EVs ↑, plt-EVs ↑ [35]
uEVs: AQP1 ↓, fetuin-A ↑, ATF3 ↑ [36,37,38]
 
▪ Sepsis ▪ leu-EVs ↑ (B-EVs, Mo-EVs, PMN-EVs, T-EVs) [42,43,44,45,46,47,48]
protein: A2MG ↑, β2-integrin ↑, EPCR ↑, PD-L2 ↑, PS ↑, TF ↑, thrombomodulin ↑ [46, 47, 52, 53, 55, 57, 62]
miRNA: miR-21-5p ↓, miR-193a-5p ↓ [64]
mRNA: MPO ↑, FOXM1 ↑, SELS ↑, GLRX2 ↑, PRDX3 ↑, SOD2 ↑ [65]
Sepsis-AKI: PS+ EVs ↑, PS+ plt-EVs ↑, PS+/CD13+ EVs ↑, β2-integrin ↑ [57]
▪ leu-EVs: bacterial growth ↓ [43]
A2MG+ PMN-EVs: bacterial load ↓, hypothermia ↓, leukocyte count ↓ (peritoneal exudate, lung tissue), mortality ↓ [63]
thrombin ↑, factor X ↑ [42, 47]
heart, lung: eNOS ↑, SOD ↑, iNOS ↑, COX-2 ↑, NF-κB ↑ [66]
liver: eNOS ↓, SOD2 ↓, COX-2 ↓, I-κBα phosphorylation ↓ [66]
▪ HUS ▪ leu-EVs ↑, plt-EVs ↑, RBC-EVs ↑, C3+ and C9+ EVs (plt, Mo, Nφ) ↑ [70,71,72]
protein: C3 ↑, C9 ↑, TF ↑ [72, 75]
▪ plt-EVs, Mo-EVs, Nφ-EVs, RBC-EVs: Stx transport and uptake into renal ECs, podocytes, tubular epithelium [77]
CKD EC-EVs ↑, PS+ (EC-) EVs ↑ [81, 82, 84,85,86,87,88,89,90,91]
protein: GRP ↓, fetuin-A ↓ [97]
miRNA: miR-223 ↑ [81]
uEVs: CD2-associated protein mRNA ↓ [98]
thrombin ↑, osteocalcin ↑ (VSMCs, EPCs, fibroblasts), VSMC osteochondrogenic differentiation and inflammation ↑, VSMC calcification ↑, angiogenesis ↓, EC apoptosis ↑, endothelium-dependent relaxation ↓, endothelial cGMP and NO ↓ [81, 82, 87, 91, 97]
miR-223+ EVs: VSMC calcification ↑, angiogenesis ↓, EC apoptosis ↑ [81]
  1. ATF3 activating transcription factor 3, EPCR endothelial protein C receptor, FOXM1 forkhead box protein M1, GLRX2 glutaredoxin 2, GRP gla-rich protein, MPO myeloperoxidase, PRDX3 peroxiredoxin 3, SELS selenoprotein S, VSMC vascular smooth muscle cell
  2. aIf not declared differently, EVs were purified from patients’ blood
  3. bNote that EV functions are commonly evaluated in bulk preparations and not in the specifically altered subpopulations. If specific subpopulations are given, those EVs were produced in vitro