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Table 1 Local pleural and corresponding transpulmonary pressures as measured by intra-pleural pressure sensors

From: Continuous external negative pressure improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics in Experimental Lung Injury in Pigs – A pilot proof-of-concept trial

Parameter PEEP [cmH2O] Position CENP [cmH2O] ANOVA (P-values)
0 -10 -20 -30 -40 Position CENP PEEP Mixed
         <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.871
Ventral pleural pressure
PPvent (cmH2O)
0 abdomen -2.89±6.2 -3.74±5.5 -5.54±4.7 -6.72±4.5 -7.19±4.4 0.051 <0.001   0.601
  thorax -5.18±2.5 -5.24±2.9 -6.22±3.2 -7.05±3.2 -7.23±3.9     
      0,10 0,10     
7 abdomen -1.07±6.3 -1.44±5.7 -2.58±5 -3.48±4.5 -3.92±4.3 <0.001 0.099 0 0.968
  thorax -4.1±3.6 -3.87±3.4 -4.75±3.6 -5.65±3.7 -5.67±4.4     
15 abdomen 3.04±4.1 2.75±3.6 2.7±3.1 2.16±2.8 2.17±2.7 <0.001 0.933 0,7 0.990
  thorax 0.279±2.8 -0.355±2.7 -0.972±3 -1.12±3.6 -1.09±3.6     
     *   *     
Dorsal pleural pressure PPdors (cmH2O)         0.183 <0.001 <0.001 0.248
0 abdomen 4.39±6.2 3.04±5.6 1.48±5.1 -0.0648±4.6 -1.22±4.5 0.101 <0.001   0.989
  thorax 4.63±4.2 3.52±3.7 2.24±3.8 0.669±3.4 -0.505±3.3     
     0 0,10 0,10,20     
7 abdomen 5.07±3.1 5.23±3 3.85±2.8 2.66±2.7 2.84±2.4 0.946 0.013 0 0.723
  thorax 5.03±4.3 4.11±4.4 4.1±3.2 3.28±3 3.27±3.2     
      0 0     
15 abdomen 10.2±3.4 9.45±3.1 8.2±2.9 7.75±3 7.04±3 0.249 0.027 0,7 0.944
  thorax 11.3±3.8 10.2±3.4 9.06±3 7.79±2.6 7.11±2.5     
      0 0,10     
Caudal pleural pressure PPcaud (cmH2O)         <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.580
0 abdomen 11.1±2.5 9.89±2.3 7.69±2.8 5.18±2.3 4.1±2.6 0.006 <0.001   0.590
  thorax 11.5±1.7 10.2±1.6 9.06±2 7.43±2 5.85±2.5     
     0 0,10,20 0,10,20     
7 abdomen 7.99±4.6 7.2±4 5.98±4.2 4.95±4.1 4.34±3.9 <0.001 0.027   0.930
  thorax 11.4±2.4 11.1±2.3 8.85±2.9 7.98±2.4 6.62±2.2     
    *   0,10 0,10     
15 abdomen 13.7±1.6 12.7±2.4 11.8±2.7 10.6±2.7 10.2±2.7 0.323 0.025 0,7 0.947
  thorax 13.9±6.1 11.8±4.2 11.5±4.4 9.47±2.5 9.66±2.5     
      0 0     
Ventral trans-pulmonary pressure TPvent
(cmH2O)
        <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.771
0 abdomen 4.02±5.9 4.78±5.1 6.81±4.4 7.81±4.2 8.65±4.1 0.330 <0.001   0.524
  thorax 5.89±2.3 5.83±2.6 6.95±3.1 7.8±3 8±3.8     
      0.10 0,10     
7 abdomen 8.15±6.6 9.89±6.1 11.4±5.5 12.5±5.2 12.9±5 <0.001 0.002 0 0.609
  thorax 12.3±3.6 12±3.3 13±3.6 13.9±3.4 15.2±3.9     
      0 0.10     
15 abdomen 13.2±4.2 13.5±3.8 13.8±3.1 14.7±2 14.6±2.1 <0.001 0.557 0,7 0.989
  thorax 16.3±1.7 17±1.5 17.7±2 17.9±2.9 17.9±3.1     
    * * * *     
Dorsal trans-pulmonary pressure TPdors
(cmH2O)
        0.009 <0.001 <0.001 0.600
0 abdomen -3.26±6 -2.01±5.3 -0.207±4.6 2.69±4.6 2.68±3.9 <0.001 <0.001   0.630
  thorax -3.92±3.9 -2.94±3.4 -1.52±3.4 0.0791±3 1.28±2.9     
     0 0,10,20 * 0,10,20     
7 abdomen 2.43±3.1 3.22±2.5 5.01±2.2 6.35±2.6 6.46±2.3 0.141 <0.001 0 0.529
  thorax 3.15±4.2 2.85±3.5 4.1±2.9 4.95±2.6 5.33±2.7     
      0,10 0,10     
15 abdomen 6.09±3.1 6.82±3.1 8.33±2.9 9.14±3.7 9.7±3.3 0.399 0.002 0,7 0.986
  thorax 5.35±3.7 6.43±3.2 7.65±2.7 8.99±2.5 9.67±2.7     
     0 0,10 0,10     
TPvent – TPcaud
(cmH2O)
        <0.001 0.003 <0.001 0.997
0 abdomen 14±7.5 13.6±6.4 13.2±5.8 11.4±4.5 11.3±4.4 0.001 0.031   0.970
thorax 16.7±2.8 15.5±3.5 15.3±3 14.5±2.9 13.1±2.7     
7 abdomen 9.26±5.3 8.64±4.3 8.56±4.6 8.43±4.4 7.93±4.8 <0.001 0.484 0 0.913
thorax 15.5±3.1 15.3±2.6 13.6±4.1 13.6±3.9 12.6±4     
   *        
15 abdomen 10.6±4.2 9.96±3.7 9.14±3.8 8.45±3.3 7.98±3.1 <0.001 0.063 0, 7 0.978
thorax 13.6±4.8 12.1±2.4 12.5±2.4 10.6±2.6 10.7±3.3     
      *     
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation. Linear-mixed effects, repeated-measures ANOVA with factors position (abdomen or thorax), PEEP and CENP were performed for each parameter (1st line) over all values and for each PEEP-step (1st line of each PEEP step). Post hoc comparison was done acc. to Sidak after significant effects for CENP (0, 10, 20 and 30 indicate if the value at respective CENP was different compared to CENP 0, 10, 20 and 30 cmH2O, respectively.) or PEEP (0 or 7 in PEEP effect column indicates the significant difference between the respective PEEP row with PEEP level indicated in the number, e.g. 0 or 7) or position (* position effects at the respective CENP). Significance was accepted for P < 0.05
  2. CENP continuous external negative pressure, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure