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Table 1 Study inclusion and exclusion criteria according to groups

From: Progranulin signaling in sepsis, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and COVID-19: a comparative, observational study

Criteria Sepsis SIRS Pneumonia Localized infection Healthy controls
Inclusion Sepsis or septic shock according to SEPSIS-3 criteria [15] Systemic inflammatory response after major surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (modified SEPSIS-2 criteria) ICU or IMC patients with community-acquired pneumonia without recent hospitalization or association with other healthcare facilities such as nursing homes, dialysis centers, and outpatient clinics
Clinical symptoms like fever, cough or dyspnea and a CURB-65 score ≥ 1 were required for diagnosis
ICU/IMC patients with large peripheral tissue infections (e.g., abscess formation after i.v. drug abuse) Charlson Comorbidity Index = 0 [41]
Exclusion No consent given by patients or next-of-kin
Age < 18
Pregnancy
Preexisting chronic infectious disorders (e.g., endocarditis, HIV or hepatitis)
Current tumor or malignant disorders
Limited patient’s life expectancy < 6 months (independent of, e.g., sepsis/SIRS, pneumonia or localized infection)
Immunosuppressiona
  1. ICU  intensive care unit, IMC intermediate care
  2. aPatients being on steroid therapy, autoimmune disease, transplantation or other immunocompromising conditions like HIV or leukemia