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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of septic shock patients from the ProCESS cohort

From: Sepsis with liver dysfunction and coagulopathy predicts an inflammatory pattern of macrophage activation

  ProCESSa n = 1177 Sepsis controls
n = 82
HBD + DIC
n = 82
p value
all vs ctrl
p value
ctrl vs HBD + DIC
Demographics
 Age 62, 51–74 59, 47–73 61, 48–70 0.51 0.53
 Gender, Male, n (%) 641 (54) 55 (67) 52 (63) 0.029 0.74
 Race, White, n (%) 807 (69) 52 (63) 52 (63) 0.33  > 0.99
 Race, Black/African American, n (%) 297 (25) 20 (24) 18 (22)  > 0.99 0.85
 Race, Asian, n (%) 21 (2) 2 (2) 3 (4) 0.66  > 0.99
 Race, American Indian/Native Alaskan, n (%) 3 (0.3) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.24  > 0.99
 Race, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, n (%) 5 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (1)  > 0.99  > 0.99
 Race, Unknown, n (%) 11 (0.9) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0.56  > 0.99
 Race, Other, n (%) 33 (3) 6 (7) 6 (7) 0.037  > 0.99
 Ethnicity, Hispanic, n (%) 121 (10) 9 (11) 13 (16) 0.85 0.49
Laboratory values (0 h)
 WBC (109/L) (n) 14.2, 8.4–20.4 (1172) 15.0, 10.9–22.0 (82) 9.7, 4.7–18.9 (82) 0.101 0.001
 Bilirubin (mg/dL) (n) 0.9, 0.6–1.5 (1092) 0.6, 0.4–0.9 (75) 3.1, 1.8–5.4 (82)  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Platelets (109/L) (n) 209, 146–288 (1148) 251, 188–327 (82) 49, 32–77 (82)  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL) (n) 1.6, 1.1–2.6 (1157) 1.6, 1.0–3.1 (81) 2.2, 1.4–3.3 (82) 0.83 0.024
 INR (IU) (n) 1.3, 1.2–1.6 (959) 1.2, 1.1–1.5 (67) 1.7, 1.5–2.2 (82) 0.026  < 0.001
Clinical Scores and Interventions (0 h)
 Hemodynamic SOFA 1, 1–4 1, 1–4 3.5, 1–4 0.66 0.059
 Respiratory SOFA 1, 1–3 2, 1–3 1, 1–3 0.184 0.59
 Central Nervous System SOFA 0, 0–1 0, 0–1 0, 0–1 0.38 0.032
 Coagulation SOFA 0, 0–1 0, 0–0 3, 2–3 0.001  < 0.001
 Liver SOFA 0, 0–1 0, 0–0 2, 1–2  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Renal SOFA 1, 0–2 1, 0–2 2, 1–3 0.66 0.016
 APACHE III Scoreb 57, 42–72 52, 41–65 69, 51–85 0.143  < 0.001
 Mechanical Ventilation, n (%) 207 (18) 18 (22) 10 (12) 0.30 0.145
Comorbidities
 Charlson Comorbidity Indexc 2, 1–4 2, 1–3 4, 2–7 0.98 0.001
 Hypertension, n (%) 697 (59) 51 (62) 41 (50) 0.64 0.157
 Myocardial Infarction, n (%) 127 (11) 4 (5) 12 (15) 0.094 0.063
Comorbidities (continued)
 Congestive Heart Failure, n (%) 144 (12) 7 (9) 10 (12) 0.38 0.61
 Chronic Respiratory Disease, n (%) 262 (22) 21 (26) 15 (18) 0.49 0.35
 Cerebral Vascular Disease, n (%) 107 (9) 16 (20) 3 (4) 0.006 0.003
 Peripheral Vascular Disease, n (%) 97 (8) 6 (7) 7 (9)  > 0.99  > 0.99
 Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 399 (34) 34 (41) 25 (30) 0.186 0.193
 Chronic Liver Disease, n (%) 76 (6) 4 (5) 31 (38) 0.81  < 0.001
 Renal Impairmentd, n (%) 172 (15) 14 (17) 27 (33) 0.52 0.029
 AIDS, n (%) 33 (3) 1 (1) 4 (5) 0.72 0.37
 Cancere, n (%) 194 (16) 10 (12) 30 (37) 0.36 0.001
Mortality
 In-hospital, n (%) 215 (18) 8 (10) 35 (43) 0.052  < 0.001
 90 days, n (%) 332 (28) 19 (23) 46 (56) 0.37  < 0.001
  1. Data expressed as median with interquartile range unless otherwise noted
  2. Complete data sets were available for each variable with the exception of those listed under Laboratory Values. The number of data points analyzed for each variable are noted for each group
  3. APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; ctrl, sepsis controls; HBD + DIC, sepsis with hepatobiliary dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation; INR, international normalized ratio; IU, international units; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; WBC, white blood cells
  4. aRepresents the entire ProCESS cohort (n = 1341) minus the cases and controls included in the present study
  5. bScores on the APACHE III range from 0 to 299, with higher scores indicating greater severity of illness
  6. cThe Charlson Comorbidity Index measures the effect of coexisting conditions on mortality, with scores ranging from 0 to 33 and higher scores indicating a greater burden of illness
  7. dDefined as history of chronic renal disease or Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) greater than 40 mg/dL and creatinine greater than 2 mg/dL
  8. eActive at the time of enrollment or diagnosed within 1 year prior to enrollment