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Volume 3 Supplement 1


Extra vascular lung water but not lung ultrasound predicts grade 3 pulmonary graft dysfunction and utilization of rescue therapies for severe hypoxemia after lung transplantation


Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is the result of pulmonary edema following lung transplantation. The definition [1] is based on Pa02/Fi02 and the presence of lung infiltrates on chest X-ray. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) and the extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) are reliable methods for quantification of lung edema [2, 3].


We tested if LUS and EVLWi were associated with grade 3 PGD.


We prospectively included patients who underwent lung transplantation in one university teaching hospital over a 14-month period. LUS scores and EVLWi were assessed at ICU admission and during the following 48 hours period. We compared patients with grade 3 PGD with the others.


36 patients were included. Among them, 13 (36 %) had grade 3 PGD. EVLWi was significantly higher in the grade 3 PGD group at ICU admission, day one and at day 2.

A cut-off value of 14 ml/kg of EVLWi at admission predicts the progression to grade 3 PGD with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% and was significantly associated with the need for rescue therapy for severe hypoxemia.

Less than a half of patients had all their LUS windows available. LUS scores did not discriminate patients with grade 3 PGD from the others.


Contrary to LUS scores, EVLWi is a promising tool for early assessment of grade 3 PGD after lung transplantation.


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    Christie JD, Carby M, Bag R, Corris P, Hertz M, Weill D: Report of the ISHLT Working Group on Primary Lung Graft Dysfunction part II: definition. A consensus statement of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant Off Publ Int Soc Heart Transplant. 2005, 24 (10): 1454-1459. 10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.049.

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    Agricola E, Bove T, Oppizzi M, et al: “ultrasound comet-tail images”: A marker of pulmonary edema*: a comparative study with wedge pressure and extravascular lung water. Chest. 2005, 127 (5): 1690-1695. 10.1378/chest.127.5.1690.

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    Katzenelson R, Perel A, Berkenstadt H, et al: Accuracy of transpulmonary thermodilution versus gravimetric measurement of extravascular lung water. Crit Care Med. 2004, 32 (7): 1550-1554. 10.1097/01.CCM.0000130995.18334.8B.

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Correspondence to C Guervilly.

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  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Rescue Therapy
  • Lung Edema
  • Extravascular Lung Water