Skip to main content

Mouse sepsis models: don't forget ambient temperature!

A Correspondence to this article was published on 23 May 2022

The Original Article was published on 29 December 2021

The recently published contribution by Bauer et al. [1] in this journal deciphers the heuristic value of a biological definition of sepsis as a failing stress response. Rightly, the authors proposed to expand the concept of sepsis by incorporating infectious stress within the general organismic stress response to define sepsis as an illness state characterized by allostatic overload and failing adaptive responses along with biotic (pathogen) and abiotic environmental (e.g., ambient temperature, Ta) stress factors.

We want to take the opportunity to ventilate a serious shortcoming of experimental sepsis research, which compromises its translational value: the systematic disregard of Ta on sepsis progression and outcome (Table 1). Textbook knowledge says that thermoregulation is a fundamental homeostatic function of all mammals. It includes afferent thermal sensing, central regulation, and an efferent response with the consequence of tightly controlled body temperature within a narrow species-specific range [2]. Variations of core body temperature (Tc) outside this range trigger autonomic thermoregulatory responses, mainly via a gradually increased sympathetic activity [3]. Clinical data clearly indicate that spontaneous Tc lowering (hypothermia indicating energy exhaustion) is directly correlated with poor outcome of sepsis [4,5,6]. Hence, in clinical settings, recommendations clearly define optimal ambient temperature ranges for appropriate care of septic patients to prevent cold stress. Therefore, Ta is controlled within a narrow range of thermoneutral temperatures at which energy expenditure to maintain body temperature is lowest to save metabolic demands and prevent additional cold stress and its negative consequences on critically ill patients [7].

Table 1 Ambient temperatures in experimental sepsis research with mouse models (2019–2022)

Surprisingly, this fundamental prerequisite to warrant best possible care for patients is widely unregarded in experimental sepsis research. Mice exhibit a rather unfavorable surface area to body mass ratio as well as an unfavorable whole body thermal conductance (> one order of magnitude difference between mouse and human): therefore, already under healthy and thermoneutral conditions (similar for mouse and human at ~ 30 °C), mice have to compensate it by an enhanced basal metabolic rate.

Incredibly, almost all sepsis experiments with mice are done at “room temperature”! However, these standard housing temperatures for laboratory mice, e.g., Ta of 20 °C and 24 °C [8,9,10] induce chronic cold stress for mice. Healthy mice are capable of controlling such a challenge and maintain their core temperature through an appropriate increase of their metabolism. Indeed, energy demand is increased by about 50% at Ta of 22 °C compared with thermoneutral conditions [11]. However, sick mice are compromised by severe infection or systemic inflammation and additional cold stress markedly altered their response to sepsis by recruiting different defense mechanisms. Recently, two seminal publications appeared on experimental sepsis research and mild cold stress. Ganeshan et al. [12] exemplified that activation of immunity (by LPS and bacterial sepsis) causes an energetic trade-off with homeothermy (the stable maintenance of core temperature), resulting in hypometabolism and hypothermia. Among other measures, the primary outcome parameter was survival. Sepsis caused by induced bacteremia led to an increased mortality rate in mice kept at Ta = 30 °C (~ 40%) compared with mice kept at Ta = 22 °C (~ 5%). A similar result in terms of mortality rate was reported in response to LPS at the dosages used there (LPS 1–1.5 mg/kg): in mice kept at Ta = 30 °C (~ 75%) compared with mice kept at Ta = 22 °C (~ 50%). In contrast, Carpenter et al. [13] reported that the survival rate of male C57BL/6 mice housed at 30 °C (78%) after abdominal sepsis was significantly increased compared with mice housed at 22 °C (40%). This is in line with findings after LPS administration [14]. These findings highlight the pronounced impact of housing temperature on established sepsis models and the importance of reporting housing temperature.

All in all, these studies substantiate the importance of tightly controlling Ta to prevent significant bias in results from preclinical animal research on infection and inflammation. Hence, a decisive difference is whether cold-adapted (stressed) mice or mice housed under thermoneutral (unstressed) conditions were characterized to be “well-designated mouse models”, particularly when translational implications are addressed. Accounting for Ta will likely improve the predictive power and value of preclinical sepsis research and may aid in overcoming the “replication crisis” [15].

We strongly recommend considering thermoneutral conditions as “standard housing conditions for mice in translational approaches” to improve animal modeling in sepsis [16].


  1. Bauer M, Shankar-Hari M, Thomas-Ruddel DO, Wetzker R (2021) Towards an ecological definition of sepsis: a viewpoint. Intensive Care Med Exp 9:63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Nakamura K (2011) Central circuitries for body temperature regulation and fever. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1207-1228

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Tan CL, Knight ZA (2018) Regulation of body temperature by the nervous system. Neuron 98:31–48

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Schortgen F (2012) Fever in sepsis. Minerva Anestesiol 78:1254–1264

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Thomas-Ruddel DO, Hoffmann P, Schwarzkopf D, Scheer C, Bach F, Komann M, Gerlach H, Weiss M, Lindner M, Ruddel H, Simon P, Kuhn SO, Wetzker R, Bauer M, Reinhart K, Bloos F, Group Ms (2021) Fever and hypothermia represent two populations of sepsis patients and are associated with outside temperature. Crit Care 25:368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Young PJ, Saxena M, Beasley R, Bellomo R, Bailey M, Pilcher D, Finfer S, Harrison D, Myburgh J, Rowan K (2012) Early peak temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with or without infection. Intensive Care Med 38:437–444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Laupland KB, Zahar JR, Adrie C, Minet C, Vesin A, Goldgran-Toledano D, Azoulay E, Garrouste-Orgeas M, Cohen Y, Schwebel C, Jamali S, Darmon M, Dumenil AS, Kallel H, Souweine B, Timsit JF (2012) Severe hypothermia increases the risk for intensive care unit-acquired infection. Clin Infect Dis 54:1064–1070

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. CotEU-EP (2010) Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the council on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. Off J Eur Union L 276:33–79

    Google Scholar 

  9. GV-SOLAS (2014) Tiergerechte Haltung von Labormäusen. https://wwwgv-solasde/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/hal_201408Tiergerechte-Haltung-Maus.pdf

  10. NRC (2011) Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. The National Academy Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gordon CJ (2017) The mouse thermoregulatory system: its impact on translating biomedical data to humans. Physiol Behav 179:55–66

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ganeshan K, Nikkanen J, Man K, Leong YA, Sogawa Y, Maschek JA, Van Ry T, Chagwedera DN, Cox JE, Chawla A (2019) Energetic trade-offs and hypometabolic states promote disease tolerance. Cell 177(399–413):e312

    Google Scholar 

  13. Carpenter KC, Zhou Y, Hakenjos JM, Fry CD, Nemzek JA (2020) Thermoneutral housing temperature improves survival in a murine model of polymicrobial peritonitis. Shock 54:688–696

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Ndongson-Dongmo B, Lang GP, Mece O, Hechaichi N, Lajqi T, Hoyer D, Brodhun M, Heller R, Wetzker R, Franz M, Levy FO, Bauer R (2019) Reduced ambient temperature exacerbates SIRS-induced cardiac autonomic dysregulation and myocardial dysfunction in mice. Basic Res Cardiol 114:26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Dirnagl U, Duda GN, Grainger DW, Reinke P, Roubenoff R (2022) Reproducibility, relevance and reliability as barriers to efficient and credible biomedical technology translation. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 182:114118

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Osuchowski MF, Ayala A, Bahrami S, Bauer M, Boros M, Cavaillon JM, Chaudry IH, Coopersmith CM, Deutschman C, Drechsler S, Efron P, Frostell C, Fritsch G, Gozdzik W, Hellman J, Huber-Lang M, Inoue S, Knapp S, Kozlov AV, Libert C, Marshall JC, Moldawer LL, Radermacher P, Redl H, Remick DG, Singer M, Thiemermann C, Wang P, Wiersinga WJ, Xiao X, Zingarelli B (2018) Minimum quality threshold in pre-clinical sepsis studies (MQTiPSS): an international expert consensus initiative for improvement of animal modeling in sepsis. Intensive Care Med Exp 6:26

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Reinhard Bauer.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Helbing, D.L., Stabenow, L.K. & Bauer, R. Mouse sepsis models: don't forget ambient temperature!. ICMx 10, 29 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: