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  1. The complement factor D (CFD) exerts a regulatory role during infection. However, its physiological function in coagulopathy and its impact on the course of an infection remains unclear.

    Authors: O. Sommerfeld, K. Dahlke, M. Sossdorf, R. A. Claus, A. Scherag, M. Bauer and F. Bloos
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:41
  2. Hypovitaminosis C and vitamin C deficiency are common in critically ill patients and associated with organ dysfunction. Low vitamin C status often goes unnoticed because determination is challenging. The stati...

    Authors: Sander Rozemeijer, Bob Smit, Paul W. G. Elbers, Armand R. J. Girbes, Heleen M. Oudemans-van Straaten and Angelique M. E. de Man
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:40
  3. Reduced endothelial Tie2 expression occurs in diverse experimental models of critical illness, and experimental Tie2 suppression is sufficient to increase spontaneous vascular permeability. Looking for a commo...

    Authors: Temitayo O. Idowu, Valerie Etzrodt, Thorben Pape, Joerg Heineke, Klaus Stahl, Hermann Haller and Sascha David
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:38
  4. Compressions given during cardiopulmonary resuscitation generate small, ineffective passive ventilations through oscillating waves. Positive end-expiratory pressure increases the volume of these passive ventil...

    Authors: Yosef Levenbrown, Md Jobayer Hossain, James P. Keith, Katlyn Burr, Anne Hesek and Thomas H. Shaffer
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:37
  5. Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that challenges immune cells to reprogram their mitochondrial metabolism towards to increase ATP synthesis for building an appropriate immunity. This could print me...

    Authors: Wagner Luis Nedel, Afonso Kopczynski, Marcelo Salimen Rodolphi, Nathan Ryzewski Strogulski, Marco De Bastiani, Tiago Hermes Maeso Montes, Jose Abruzzi Jr, Antonio Galina, Tamas L. Horvath and Luis Valmor Portela
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:39
  6. Proenkephalin A 119-159 (penKid) has been suggested as a marker of renal failure and poor outcome. We aimed to investigate the association of penKid on ICU admission with organ dysfunction and mortality in a m...

    Authors: Attila Frigyesi, Lisa Boström, Maria Lengquist, Patrik Johnsson, Oscar H. M. Lundberg, Martin Spångfors, Martin Annborn, Tobias Cronberg, Niklas Nielsen, Helena Levin and Hans Friberg
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:36
  7. The gut microbiome plays a protective role in the host defense against pneumonia. The composition of the lung microbiota has been shown to be predictive of clinical outcome in critically ill patients. However,...

    Authors: Nora S. Wolff, Max C. Jacobs, W. Joost Wiersinga and Floor Hugenholtz
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:35
  8. Induced hypernatremia and hyperosmolarity is protective in animal models of lung injury. We hypothesized that increasing and maintaining plasma sodium between 145 and 150 mmol/l in patients with moderate-to-se...

    Authors: Shailesh Bihari, Shivesh Prakash, Dani L. Dixon, Elena Cavallaro and Andrew D. Bersten
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:33
  9. To identify priorities for administrative, epidemiologic and diagnostic research in sepsis.

    Authors: Mark E. Nunnally, Ricard Ferrer, Greg S. Martin, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Flavia R. Machado, Daniel De Backer, Craig M. Coopersmith and Clifford S. Deutschman
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:34
  10. The identification of risk factors for adverse outcomes and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay in COVID-19 patients is essential for prognostication, determining treatment intensity, and resource allocat...

    Authors: Lucas M. Fleuren, Michele Tonutti, Daan P. de Bruin, Robbert C. A. Lalisang, Tariq A. Dam, Diederik Gommers, Olaf L. Cremer, Rob J. Bosman, Sebastiaan J. J. Vonk, Mattia Fornasa, Tomas Machado, Nardo J. M. van der Meer, Sander Rigter, Evert-Jan Wils, Tim Frenzel, Dave A. Dongelmans…
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:32
  11. Acute kidney injury is a severe complication following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and is associated with capillary leakage and microcirculatory perfusion disturbances. CPB-induced thrombin release results in...

    Authors: Nicole A. M. Dekker, Anoek L. I. van Leeuwen, Matijs van Meurs, Jill Moser, Jeannette E. Pankras, Nicole N. van der Wel, Hans W. Niessen, Marc G. Vervloet, Alexander B. A. Vonk, Peter L. Hordijk, Christa Boer and Charissa E. van den Brom
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:30
  12. Whether or not to administer antibiotics is a common and challenging clinical decision in patients with suspected infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively validate InSep, a 29-m...

    Authors: Asimina Safarika, James W. Wacker, Konstantinos Katsaros, Nicky Solomonidi, George Giannikopoulos, Antigone Kotsaki, Ioannis M. Koutelidakis, Sabrina M. Coyle, Henry K. Cheng, Oliver Liesenfeld, Timothy E. Sweeney and Evangelos J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:31
  13. The vascular endothelium has important endocrine and paracrine roles, particularly in the regulation of vascular tone and immune function, and it has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of cardio...

    Authors: Simon Lambden, Andrew S. Cowburn, David Macias, Tessa A. C. Garrud, Bernardo J. Krause, Dino A. Giussani, Charlotte Summers and Randall S. Johnson
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:28
  14. Pulmonary hypertension is a significant risk factor in patients undergoing surgery. The combined effects of general anaesthesia and positive pressure ventilation can aggravate this condition and cause increase...

    Authors: Janus Adler Hyldebrandt, Nikolaj Bøgh, Camilla Omann and Peter Agger
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:29
  15. In critically ill children, detection of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH > 10 mmHg) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS = IAH + organ dysfunction) is paramount and usually monitored through intra-vesical...

    Authors: T. Kaussen, M. Gutting, F. Lasch, D. Boethig, A. von Gise, J. Dingemann, H. Koeditz, T. Jack, M. Sasse, P. Beerbaum and M. Boehne
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:24
  16. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with acute kidney injury and increased mortality. Targeting the endothelial angiopoietin/Tie2 system, which regulates endothelial permeability, previously reduced hemorrhagic sh...

    Authors: Anoek L. I. van Leeuwen, Nicole A. M. Dekker, Paul Van Slyke, Esther de Groot, Marc G. Vervloet, Joris J. T. H. Roelofs, Matijs van Meurs and Charissa E. van den Brom
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:23
  17. One of the most serious complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is ECMO cannulae infection, which can occur at quadruple the rate of central venous catheter infections, and signific...

    Authors: India Pearse, Amanda Corley, Yue Qu and John Fraser
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:25
  18. The pathophysiology of sepsis is multi-facetted and highly complex. As sepsis is a leading cause of global mortality that still lacks targeted therapies, increased understanding of its pathogenesis is vital fo...

    Authors: Alex R. Schuurman, Tom D. Y. Reijnders, Robert F. J. Kullberg, Joe M. Butler, Tom van der Poll and W. Joost Wiersinga
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:27
  19. The physiological dead space is a strong indicator of severity and outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The “ideal” alveolar PCO2, in equilibrium with pulmonary capillary PCO2, is a central conc...

    Authors: Matteo Bonifazi, Federica Romitti, Mattia Busana, Maria Michela Palumbo, Irene Steinberg, Simone Gattarello, Paola Palermo, Leif Saager, Konrad Meissner, Michael Quintel, Davide Chiumello and Luciano Gattinoni
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:21
  20. Senicapoc is a potent and selective blocker of KCa3.1, a calcium-activated potassium channel of intermediate conductance. In the present study, we investigated whether there is a beneficial effect of senicapoc...

    Authors: Asbjørn G. Petersen, Peter C. Lind, Anne-Sophie B. Jensen, Mark A. Eggertsen, Asger Granfeldt and Ulf Simonsen
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:20
  21. To describe the effect of mechanical ventilation on diaphragm mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cytochrome c oxidase activity and content, and thei...

    Authors: P. Eyenga, D. Roussel, B. Rey, P. Ndille, L. Teulier, F. Eyenga, C. Romestaing, J. Morel, V. Gueguen-Chaignon and S-S. Sheu
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:19
  22. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate can aid in detecting infections of the central nervous system and surrounding structures. Neurosurgical patients with temporary lumbar or ventricular CSF drain...

    Authors: C. Stephani, A. H. K. Choi and O. Moerer
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:18
  23. Real-time automated analysis of videos of the microvasculature is an essential step in the development of research protocols and clinical algorithms that incorporate point-of-care microvascular analysis. In re...

    Authors: Christian S. Guay, Mariam Khebir, T. Shiva Shahiri, Ariana Szilagyi, Erin Elizabeth Cole, Gabrielle Simoneau and Mohamed Badawy
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:15
  24. The pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may eventually result in heterogeneous lung collapse and edema-flooded airways, predisposing the lung to progressive tissue damage known as ven...

    Authors: Ioanna Nikitopoulou, Ioanna Ninou, Nikolaos Manitsopoulos, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Stylianos E. Orfanos, Vassilis Aidinis and Anastasia Kotanidou
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:12
  25. Cerebral vasospasm (VS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) constitute major complications following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A few studies have examined the relationship between different indices of cer...

    Authors: Vasilios E. Papaioannou, Karol P. Budohoski, Michal M. Placek, Zofia Czosnyka, Peter Smielewski and Marek Czosnyka
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:11
  26. Despite decades of preclinical research, no experimentally derived therapies for sepsis have been successfully adopted into routine clinical practice. Factors that contribute to this crisis of translation incl...

    Authors: Asher A. Mendelson, Casey Lansdell, Alison E. Fox-Robichaud, Patricia Liaw, Jaskirat Arora, Jean-François Cailhier, Gediminas Cepinskas, Emmanuel Charbonney, Claudia dos Santos, Dhruva Dwivedi, Christopher G. Ellis, Dean Fergusson, Kirsten Fiest, Sean E. Gill, Kathryn Hendrick, Victoria T. Hunniford…
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:14
  27. Inspired air is heated and humidified in the nose before it reaches lower airways. This mechanism is bypassed during tracheostomy, directly exposing the airways to colder and drier air from the environment, kn...

    Authors: Susyn Joan Kelly, Paul Martinsen and Stanislav Tatkov
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:8
  28. Critically ill COVID-19 patients have significantly increased risk of death. Although several circulating biomarkers are thought to be related to COVID-19 severity, few studies have focused on the characterist...

    Authors: Chaoyang Sun, Yuzhe Sun, Ping Wu, Wencheng Ding, Shiyou Wang, Jiafeng Li, Langchao Liang, Chaochao Chai, Yu Fu, Zhiming Li, Linnan Zhu, Jia Ju, Xin Liao, Xiaoyuan Huang, Ling Feng, Ding Ma…
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:13
  29. To expand upon the priorities of fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy research priorities identified by a group of experts assigned by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of I...

    Authors: Ishaq Lat, Craig M. Coopersmith, Daniel De Backer and Craig M. Coopersmith
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:10
  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: A. Kleyman, A. Cesar, G. Stanzani, N. Arulkumaran, W. Khaliq, DT. Andreis, B. Bollen Pinto, M. Waugh and M. Singer
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:7

    The original article was published in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8:73

  31. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for a bedside tool for lung mechanics assessment and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) monitoring. Mechanical power is a unifying concept including all the comp...

    Authors: Angelo Senzi, Marco Bindi, Iacopo Cappellini, Lucia Zamidei and Guglielmo Consales
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:6
  32. Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) remains a major obstacle after lung transplantation. Ischemia–reperfusion injury is a known contributor to the development of PGD following lung transplantation. We developed a ...

    Authors: Anna Elisabeth Frick, Michaela Orlitová, Arno Vanstapel, Sofie Ordies, Sandra Claes, Dominique Schols, Tobias Heigl, Janne Kaes, Berta Saez-Gimenez, Robin Vos, Geert M. Verleden, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Stijn E. Verleden, Dirk E. Van Raemdonck and Arne P. Neyrinck
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:4
  33. Lung ultrasound can adequately monitor disease severity in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We hypothesize lung ultrasound can adequately monitor COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients.

    Authors: Micah L. A. Heldeweg, Jorge E. Lopez Matta, Mark E. Haaksma, Jasper M. Smit, Carlos V. Elzo Kraemer, Harm-Jan de Grooth, Evert de Jonge, Lilian J. Meijboom, Leo M. A. Heunks, David J. van Westerloo and Pieter R. Tuinman
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:1
  34. Bedside measurement of lung volume may provide guidance in the personalised setting of respiratory support, especially in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome at risk of ventilator-induced lun...

    Authors: Minh C. Tran, Douglas C. Crockett, John N. Cronin, João Batista Borges, Göran Hedenstierna, Anders Larsson, Andrew D. Farmery and Federico Formenti
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:3
  35. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), an invasive mechanical therapy, provides cardio-respiratory support to critically ill patients when maximal conventional support has failed. ECMO is delivered via la...

    Authors: India Pearse, Amanda Corley, Nicole Bartnikowski and John F. Fraser
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2021 9:5
  36. Mechanical ventilation can induce or even worsen lung injury, at least in part via overdistension caused by too large volumes or too high pressures. The complement system has been suggested to play a causative...

    Authors: Friso M. de Beer, Luuk Wieske, Gerard van Mierlo, Diana Wouters, Sacha Zeerleder, Lieuwe D. Bos, Nicole P. Juffermans, Marcus J. Schultz, Tom van der Poll, Wim K. Lagrand and Janneke Horn
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):74

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  37. Accumulated airway secretions in the endotracheal tube increase work of breathing and may favor airway colonization eventually leading to pneumonia. The aim of this preplanned substudy of the ‘Preventive Nebul...

    Authors: Sophia van der Hoeven, Lorenzo Ball, Federico Constantino, David M. van Meenen, Paolo Pelosi, Ludo F. Beenen, Marcus J. Schultz and Frederique Paulus
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):71

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  38. The animal experimental counterpart of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung injury (ALI). Most models of ALI involve reproducing the clinical risk factors associated with human ARDS, ...

    Authors: Laura Chimenti, Luis Morales-Quinteros, Ferranda Puig, Marta Camprubi-Rimblas, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Maria Nieves Gómez, Jessica Tijero, Lluis Blanch, Gustavo Matute-Bello and Antonio Artigas
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):62

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  39. Continuous external negative pressure (CENP) during positive pressure ventilation can recruit dependent lung regions. We hypothesised that CENP applied regionally to the thorax or the abdomen only, increases t...

    Authors: Martin Scharffenberg, Jakob Wittenstein, Moritz Herzog, Sebastian Tauer, Luigi Vivona, Raphael Theilen, Thomas Bluth, Thomas Kiss, Thea Koch, Giuseppe Fiorentino, Marcelo Gama de Abreu and Robert Huhle
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):49

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  40. Outcome prediction in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) greatly improves when patients are reclassified based on predefined arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen...

    Authors: Fabienne D. Simonis, Laura R. A. Schouten, Olaf L. Cremer, David S. Y. Ong, Gabriele Amoruso, Gilda Cinella, Marcus J. Schultz and Lieuwe D. Bos
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):43

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  41. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung recruitment could be maximised with the use of recruitment manoeuvres (RM) or applying a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) higher than wh...

    Authors: Lorenzo Ball, Ary Serpa Neto, Valeria Trifiletti, Maura Mandelli, Iacopo Firpo, Chiara Robba, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J. Schultz, Nicolò Patroniti, Patricia R. M. Rocco and Paolo Pelosi
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):39

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  42. This review addresses the plausibility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) therapy for acute lung injury (ALI) and circulatory shock, by contrasting the promising preclinical results to the present clinical reality. The re...

    Authors: Tamara Merz, Nicole Denoix, Martin Wepler, Holger Gäßler, David A. C. Messerer, Clair Hartmann, Thomas Datzmann, Peter Radermacher and Oscar McCook
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):33

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  43. Flow-controlled ventilation (FCV) allows expiratory flow control, reducing the collapse of the airways during expiration. The performance of FCV during one-lung ventilation (OLV) under intravascular normo- and...

    Authors: Jakob Wittenstein, Martin Scharffenberg, Xi Ran, Diana Keller, Pia Michler, Sebastian Tauer, Raphael Theilen, Thomas Kiss, Thomas Bluth, Thea Koch, Marcelo Gama de Abreu and Robert Huhle
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):24

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  44. Acute ischaemic stroke is associated with a high risk of non-neurological complications, which include respiratory failure, cardiovascular dysfunction, kidney and liver injury, and altered immune and endocrine...

    Authors: Chiara Robba, Denise Battaglini, Cynthia S. Samary, Pedro L. Silva, Lorenzo Ball, Patricia R. M. Rocco and Paolo Pelosi
    Citation: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental 2020 8(Suppl 1):23

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1